# COMPLEX*16 or DOUBLE COMPLEX routines for general (i.e., unsymmetric, in some cases rectangular) matrix

## zgebak

```USAGE:
info, v = NumRu::Lapack.zgebak( job, side, ilo, ihi, scale, v, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEBAK( JOB, SIDE, N, ILO, IHI, SCALE, M, V, LDV, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEBAK forms the right or left eigenvectors of a complex general
*  matrix by backward transformation on the computed eigenvectors of the
*  balanced matrix output by ZGEBAL.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOB     (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the type of backward transformation required:
*          = 'N', do nothing, return immediately;
*          = 'P', do backward transformation for permutation only;
*          = 'S', do backward transformation for scaling only;
*          = 'B', do backward transformations for both permutation and
*                 scaling.
*          JOB must be the same as the argument JOB supplied to ZGEBAL.
*
*  SIDE    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'R':  V contains right eigenvectors;
*          = 'L':  V contains left eigenvectors.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix V.  N >= 0.
*
*  ILO     (input) INTEGER
*  IHI     (input) INTEGER
*          The integers ILO and IHI determined by ZGEBAL.
*          1 <= ILO <= IHI <= N, if N > 0; ILO=1 and IHI=0, if N=0.
*
*  SCALE   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          Details of the permutation and scaling factors, as returned
*          by ZGEBAL.
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix V.  M >= 0.
*
*  V       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDV,M)
*          On entry, the matrix of right or left eigenvectors to be
*          transformed, as returned by ZHSEIN or ZTREVC.
*          On exit, V is overwritten by the transformed eigenvectors.
*
*  LDV     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array V. LDV >= max(1,N).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgebal

```USAGE:
ilo, ihi, scale, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgebal( job, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEBAL( JOB, N, A, LDA, ILO, IHI, SCALE, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEBAL balances a general complex matrix A.  This involves, first,
*  permuting A by a similarity transformation to isolate eigenvalues
*  in the first 1 to ILO-1 and last IHI+1 to N elements on the
*  diagonal; and second, applying a diagonal similarity transformation
*  to rows and columns ILO to IHI to make the rows and columns as
*  close in norm as possible.  Both steps are optional.
*
*  Balancing may reduce the 1-norm of the matrix, and improve the
*  accuracy of the computed eigenvalues and/or eigenvectors.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOB     (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the operations to be performed on A:
*          = 'N':  none:  simply set ILO = 1, IHI = N, SCALE(I) = 1.0
*                  for i = 1,...,N;
*          = 'P':  permute only;
*          = 'S':  scale only;
*          = 'B':  both permute and scale.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the input matrix A.
*          On exit,  A is overwritten by the balanced matrix.
*          If JOB = 'N', A is not referenced.
*          See Further Details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  ILO     (output) INTEGER
*  IHI     (output) INTEGER
*          ILO and IHI are set to integers such that on exit
*          A(i,j) = 0 if i > j and j = 1,...,ILO-1 or I = IHI+1,...,N.
*          If JOB = 'N' or 'S', ILO = 1 and IHI = N.
*
*  SCALE   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          Details of the permutations and scaling factors applied to
*          A.  If P(j) is the index of the row and column interchanged
*          with row and column j and D(j) is the scaling factor
*          applied to row and column j, then
*          SCALE(j) = P(j)    for j = 1,...,ILO-1
*                   = D(j)    for j = ILO,...,IHI
*                   = P(j)    for j = IHI+1,...,N.
*          The order in which the interchanges are made is N to IHI+1,
*          then 1 to ILO-1.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit.
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The permutations consist of row and column interchanges which put
*  the matrix in the form
*
*             ( T1   X   Y  )
*     P A P = (  0   B   Z  )
*             (  0   0   T2 )
*
*  where T1 and T2 are upper triangular matrices whose eigenvalues lie
*  along the diagonal.  The column indices ILO and IHI mark the starting
*  and ending columns of the submatrix B. Balancing consists of applying
*  a diagonal similarity transformation inv(D) * B * D to make the
*  1-norms of each row of B and its corresponding column nearly equal.
*  The output matrix is
*
*     ( T1     X*D          Y    )
*     (  0  inv(D)*B*D  inv(D)*Z ).
*     (  0      0           T2   )
*
*  Information about the permutations P and the diagonal matrix D is
*  returned in the vector SCALE.
*
*  This subroutine is based on the EISPACK routine CBAL.
*
*  Modified by Tzu-Yi Chen, Computer Science Division, University of
*    California at Berkeley, USA
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgebd2

```USAGE:
d, e, tauq, taup, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgebd2( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEBD2( M, N, A, LDA, D, E, TAUQ, TAUP, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEBD2 reduces a complex general m by n matrix A to upper or lower
*  real bidiagonal form B by a unitary transformation: Q' * A * P = B.
*
*  If m >= n, B is upper bidiagonal; if m < n, B is lower bidiagonal.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows in the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns in the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n general matrix to be reduced.
*          On exit,
*          if m >= n, the diagonal and the first superdiagonal are
*            overwritten with the upper bidiagonal matrix B; the
*            elements below the diagonal, with the array TAUQ, represent
*            the unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary
*            reflectors, and the elements above the first superdiagonal,
*            with the array TAUP, represent the unitary matrix P as
*            a product of elementary reflectors;
*          if m < n, the diagonal and the first subdiagonal are
*            overwritten with the lower bidiagonal matrix B; the
*            elements below the first subdiagonal, with the array TAUQ,
*            represent the unitary matrix Q as a product of
*            elementary reflectors, and the elements above the diagonal,
*            with the array TAUP, represent the unitary matrix P as
*            a product of elementary reflectors.
*          See Further Details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  D       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The diagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B:
*          D(i) = A(i,i).
*
*  E       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N)-1)
*          The off-diagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B:
*          if m >= n, E(i) = A(i,i+1) for i = 1,2,...,n-1;
*          if m < n, E(i) = A(i+1,i) for i = 1,2,...,m-1.
*
*  TAUQ    (output) COMPLEX*16 array dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors which
*          represent the unitary matrix Q. See Further Details.
*
*  TAUP    (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors which
*          represent the unitary matrix P. See Further Details.
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (max(M,N))
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrices Q and P are represented as products of elementary
*  reflectors:
*
*  If m >= n,
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(n)  and  P = G(1) G(2) . . . G(n-1)
*
*  Each H(i) and G(i) has the form:
*
*     H(i) = I - tauq * v * v'  and G(i) = I - taup * u * u'
*
*  where tauq and taup are complex scalars, and v and u are complex
*  vectors; v(1:i-1) = 0, v(i) = 1, and v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in
*  A(i+1:m,i); u(1:i) = 0, u(i+1) = 1, and u(i+2:n) is stored on exit in
*  A(i,i+2:n); tauq is stored in TAUQ(i) and taup in TAUP(i).
*
*  If m < n,
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(m-1)  and  P = G(1) G(2) . . . G(m)
*
*  Each H(i) and G(i) has the form:
*
*     H(i) = I - tauq * v * v'  and G(i) = I - taup * u * u'
*
*  where tauq and taup are complex scalars, v and u are complex vectors;
*  v(1:i) = 0, v(i+1) = 1, and v(i+2:m) is stored on exit in A(i+2:m,i);
*  u(1:i-1) = 0, u(i) = 1, and u(i+1:n) is stored on exit in A(i,i+1:n);
*  tauq is stored in TAUQ(i) and taup in TAUP(i).
*
*  The contents of A on exit are illustrated by the following examples:
*
*  m = 6 and n = 5 (m > n):          m = 5 and n = 6 (m < n):
*
*    (  d   e   u1  u1  u1 )           (  d   u1  u1  u1  u1  u1 )
*    (  v1  d   e   u2  u2 )           (  e   d   u2  u2  u2  u2 )
*    (  v1  v2  d   e   u3 )           (  v1  e   d   u3  u3  u3 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  d   e  )           (  v1  v2  e   d   u4  u4 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  v4  d  )           (  v1  v2  v3  e   d   u5 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  v4  v5 )
*
*  where d and e denote diagonal and off-diagonal elements of B, vi
*  denotes an element of the vector defining H(i), and ui an element of
*  the vector defining G(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgebrd

```USAGE:
d, e, tauq, taup, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgebrd( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEBRD( M, N, A, LDA, D, E, TAUQ, TAUP, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEBRD reduces a general complex M-by-N matrix A to upper or lower
*  bidiagonal form B by a unitary transformation: Q**H * A * P = B.
*
*  If m >= n, B is upper bidiagonal; if m < n, B is lower bidiagonal.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows in the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns in the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N general matrix to be reduced.
*          On exit,
*          if m >= n, the diagonal and the first superdiagonal are
*            overwritten with the upper bidiagonal matrix B; the
*            elements below the diagonal, with the array TAUQ, represent
*            the unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary
*            reflectors, and the elements above the first superdiagonal,
*            with the array TAUP, represent the unitary matrix P as
*            a product of elementary reflectors;
*          if m < n, the diagonal and the first subdiagonal are
*            overwritten with the lower bidiagonal matrix B; the
*            elements below the first subdiagonal, with the array TAUQ,
*            represent the unitary matrix Q as a product of
*            elementary reflectors, and the elements above the diagonal,
*            with the array TAUP, represent the unitary matrix P as
*            a product of elementary reflectors.
*          See Further Details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  D       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The diagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B:
*          D(i) = A(i,i).
*
*  E       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N)-1)
*          The off-diagonal elements of the bidiagonal matrix B:
*          if m >= n, E(i) = A(i,i+1) for i = 1,2,...,n-1;
*          if m < n, E(i) = A(i+1,i) for i = 1,2,...,m-1.
*
*  TAUQ    (output) COMPLEX*16 array dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors which
*          represent the unitary matrix Q. See Further Details.
*
*  TAUP    (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors which
*          represent the unitary matrix P. See Further Details.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The length of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,M,N).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= (M+N)*NB, where NB
*          is the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit.
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrices Q and P are represented as products of elementary
*  reflectors:
*
*  If m >= n,
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(n)  and  P = G(1) G(2) . . . G(n-1)
*
*  Each H(i) and G(i) has the form:
*
*     H(i) = I - tauq * v * v'  and G(i) = I - taup * u * u'
*
*  where tauq and taup are complex scalars, and v and u are complex
*  vectors; v(1:i-1) = 0, v(i) = 1, and v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in
*  A(i+1:m,i); u(1:i) = 0, u(i+1) = 1, and u(i+2:n) is stored on exit in
*  A(i,i+2:n); tauq is stored in TAUQ(i) and taup in TAUP(i).
*
*  If m < n,
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(m-1)  and  P = G(1) G(2) . . . G(m)
*
*  Each H(i) and G(i) has the form:
*
*     H(i) = I - tauq * v * v'  and G(i) = I - taup * u * u'
*
*  where tauq and taup are complex scalars, and v and u are complex
*  vectors; v(1:i) = 0, v(i+1) = 1, and v(i+2:m) is stored on exit in
*  A(i+2:m,i); u(1:i-1) = 0, u(i) = 1, and u(i+1:n) is stored on exit in
*  A(i,i+1:n); tauq is stored in TAUQ(i) and taup in TAUP(i).
*
*  The contents of A on exit are illustrated by the following examples:
*
*  m = 6 and n = 5 (m > n):          m = 5 and n = 6 (m < n):
*
*    (  d   e   u1  u1  u1 )           (  d   u1  u1  u1  u1  u1 )
*    (  v1  d   e   u2  u2 )           (  e   d   u2  u2  u2  u2 )
*    (  v1  v2  d   e   u3 )           (  v1  e   d   u3  u3  u3 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  d   e  )           (  v1  v2  e   d   u4  u4 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  v4  d  )           (  v1  v2  v3  e   d   u5 )
*    (  v1  v2  v3  v4  v5 )
*
*  where d and e denote diagonal and off-diagonal elements of B, vi
*  denotes an element of the vector defining H(i), and ui an element of
*  the vector defining G(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgecon

```USAGE:
rcond, info = NumRu::Lapack.zgecon( norm, a, anorm, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGECON( NORM, N, A, LDA, ANORM, RCOND, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGECON estimates the reciprocal of the condition number of a general
*  complex matrix A, in either the 1-norm or the infinity-norm, using
*  the LU factorization computed by ZGETRF.
*
*  An estimate is obtained for norm(inv(A)), and the reciprocal of the
*  condition number is computed as
*     RCOND = 1 / ( norm(A) * norm(inv(A)) ).
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  NORM    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies whether the 1-norm condition number or the
*          infinity-norm condition number is required:
*          = '1' or 'O':  1-norm;
*          = 'I':         Infinity-norm.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          The factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          as computed by ZGETRF.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  ANORM   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If NORM = '1' or 'O', the 1-norm of the original matrix A.
*          If NORM = 'I', the infinity-norm of the original matrix A.
*
*  RCOND   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix A,
*          computed as RCOND = 1/(norm(A) * norm(inv(A))).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeequ

```USAGE:
r, c, rowcnd, colcnd, amax, info = NumRu::Lapack.zgeequ( a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEEQU( M, N, A, LDA, R, C, ROWCND, COLCND, AMAX, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEEQU computes row and column scalings intended to equilibrate an
*  M-by-N matrix A and reduce its condition number.  R returns the row
*  scale factors and C the column scale factors, chosen to try to make
*  the largest element in each row and column of the matrix B with
*  elements B(i,j)=R(i)*A(i,j)*C(j) have absolute value 1.
*
*  R(i) and C(j) are restricted to be between SMLNUM = smallest safe
*  number and BIGNUM = largest safe number.  Use of these scaling
*  factors is not guaranteed to reduce the condition number of A but
*  works well in practice.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          The M-by-N matrix whose equilibration factors are
*          to be computed.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  R       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (M)
*          If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, R contains the row scale factors
*          for A.
*
*  C       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          If INFO = 0,  C contains the column scale factors for A.
*
*  ROWCND  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, ROWCND contains the ratio of the
*          smallest R(i) to the largest R(i).  If ROWCND >= 0.1 and
*          AMAX is neither too large nor too small, it is not worth
*          scaling by R.
*
*  COLCND  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If INFO = 0, COLCND contains the ratio of the smallest
*          C(i) to the largest C(i).  If COLCND >= 0.1, it is not
*          worth scaling by C.
*
*  AMAX    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          Absolute value of largest matrix element.  If AMAX is very
*          close to overflow or very close to underflow, the matrix
*          should be scaled.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO = i,  and i is
*                <= M:  the i-th row of A is exactly zero
*                >  M:  the (i-M)-th column of A is exactly zero
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeequb

```USAGE:
r, c, rowcnd, colcnd, amax, info = NumRu::Lapack.zgeequb( a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEEQUB( M, N, A, LDA, R, C, ROWCND, COLCND, AMAX, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEEQUB computes row and column scalings intended to equilibrate an
*  M-by-N matrix A and reduce its condition number.  R returns the row
*  scale factors and C the column scale factors, chosen to try to make
*  the largest element in each row and column of the matrix B with
*  elements B(i,j)=R(i)*A(i,j)*C(j) have an absolute value of at most
*
*  R(i) and C(j) are restricted to be a power of the radix between
*  SMLNUM = smallest safe number and BIGNUM = largest safe number.  Use
*  of these scaling factors is not guaranteed to reduce the condition
*  number of A but works well in practice.
*
*  This routine differs from ZGEEQU by restricting the scaling factors
*  to a power of the radix.  Baring over- and underflow, scaling by
*  these factors introduces no additional rounding errors.  However, the
*  scaled entries' magnitured are no longer approximately 1 but lie
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          The M-by-N matrix whose equilibration factors are
*          to be computed.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  R       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (M)
*          If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, R contains the row scale factors
*          for A.
*
*  C       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          If INFO = 0,  C contains the column scale factors for A.
*
*  ROWCND  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If INFO = 0 or INFO > M, ROWCND contains the ratio of the
*          smallest R(i) to the largest R(i).  If ROWCND >= 0.1 and
*          AMAX is neither too large nor too small, it is not worth
*          scaling by R.
*
*  COLCND  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If INFO = 0, COLCND contains the ratio of the smallest
*          C(i) to the largest C(i).  If COLCND >= 0.1, it is not
*          worth scaling by C.
*
*  AMAX    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          Absolute value of largest matrix element.  If AMAX is very
*          close to overflow or very close to underflow, the matrix
*          should be scaled.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO = i,  and i is
*                <= M:  the i-th row of A is exactly zero
*                >  M:  the (i-M)-th column of A is exactly zero
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgees

```USAGE:
sdim, w, vs, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgees( jobvs, sort, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help]){|a| ... }

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEES( JOBVS, SORT, SELECT, N, A, LDA, SDIM, W, VS, LDVS, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, BWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEES computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the
*  eigenvalues, the Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur
*  vectors Z.  This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**H).
*
*  Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the
*  Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left.
*  The leading columns of Z then form an orthonormal basis for the
*  invariant subspace corresponding to the selected eigenvalues.
*
*  A complex matrix is in Schur form if it is upper triangular.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBVS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': Schur vectors are not computed;
*          = 'V': Schur vectors are computed.
*
*  SORT    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the
*          diagonal of the Schur form.
*          = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered:
*          = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELECT).
*
*  SELECT  (external procedure) LOGICAL FUNCTION of one COMPLEX*16 argument
*          SELECT must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine.
*          If SORT = 'S', SELECT is used to select eigenvalues to order
*          to the top left of the Schur form.
*          IF SORT = 'N', SELECT is not referenced.
*          The eigenvalue W(j) is selected if SELECT(W(j)) is true.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been overwritten by its Schur form T.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  SDIM    (output) INTEGER
*          If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0.
*          If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of eigenvalues for which
*                         SELECT is true.
*
*  W       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          W contains the computed eigenvalues, in the same order that
*          they appear on the diagonal of the output Schur form T.
*
*  VS      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVS,N)
*          If JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the unitary matrix Z of Schur
*          vectors.
*          If JOBVS = 'N', VS is not referenced.
*
*  LDVS    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VS.  LDVS >= 1; if
*          JOBVS = 'V', LDVS >= N.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,2*N).
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*
*  BWORK   (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N)
*          Not referenced if SORT = 'N'.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0: if INFO = i, and i is
*               <= N:  the QR algorithm failed to compute all the
*                      eigenvalues; elements 1:ILO-1 and i+1:N of W
*                      contain those eigenvalues which have converged;
*                      if JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the matrix which
*                      reduces A to its partially converged Schur form.
*               = N+1: the eigenvalues could not be reordered because
*                      some eigenvalues were too close to separate (the
*                      problem is very ill-conditioned);
*               = N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of
*                      some complex eigenvalues so that leading
*                      eigenvalues in the Schur form no longer satisfy
*                      SELECT = .TRUE..  This could also be caused by
*                      underflow due to scaling.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeesx

```USAGE:
sdim, w, vs, rconde, rcondv, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeesx( jobvs, sort, sense, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help]){|a| ... }

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEESX( JOBVS, SORT, SELECT, SENSE, N, A, LDA, SDIM, W, VS, LDVS, RCONDE, RCONDV, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, BWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEESX computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the
*  eigenvalues, the Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur
*  vectors Z.  This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**H).
*
*  Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the
*  Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left;
*  computes a reciprocal condition number for the average of the
*  selected eigenvalues (RCONDE); and computes a reciprocal condition
*  number for the right invariant subspace corresponding to the
*  selected eigenvalues (RCONDV).  The leading columns of Z form an
*  orthonormal basis for this invariant subspace.
*
*  For further explanation of the reciprocal condition numbers RCONDE
*  and RCONDV, see Section 4.10 of the LAPACK Users' Guide (where
*  these quantities are called s and sep respectively).
*
*  A complex matrix is in Schur form if it is upper triangular.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBVS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': Schur vectors are not computed;
*          = 'V': Schur vectors are computed.
*
*  SORT    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the
*          diagonal of the Schur form.
*          = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered;
*          = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELECT).
*
*  SELECT  (external procedure) LOGICAL FUNCTION of one COMPLEX*16 argument
*          SELECT must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine.
*          If SORT = 'S', SELECT is used to select eigenvalues to order
*          to the top left of the Schur form.
*          If SORT = 'N', SELECT is not referenced.
*          An eigenvalue W(j) is selected if SELECT(W(j)) is true.
*
*  SENSE   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Determines which reciprocal condition numbers are computed.
*          = 'N': None are computed;
*          = 'E': Computed for average of selected eigenvalues only;
*          = 'V': Computed for selected right invariant subspace only;
*          = 'B': Computed for both.
*          If SENSE = 'E', 'V' or 'B', SORT must equal 'S'.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA, N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A is overwritten by its Schur form T.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  SDIM    (output) INTEGER
*          If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0.
*          If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of eigenvalues for which
*                         SELECT is true.
*
*  W       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          W contains the computed eigenvalues, in the same order
*          that they appear on the diagonal of the output Schur form T.
*
*  VS      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVS,N)
*          If JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the unitary matrix Z of Schur
*          vectors.
*          If JOBVS = 'N', VS is not referenced.
*
*  LDVS    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VS.  LDVS >= 1, and if
*          JOBVS = 'V', LDVS >= N.
*
*  RCONDE  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If SENSE = 'E' or 'B', RCONDE contains the reciprocal
*          condition number for the average of the selected eigenvalues.
*          Not referenced if SENSE = 'N' or 'V'.
*
*  RCONDV  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          If SENSE = 'V' or 'B', RCONDV contains the reciprocal
*          condition number for the selected right invariant subspace.
*          Not referenced if SENSE = 'N' or 'E'.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,2*N).
*          Also, if SENSE = 'E' or 'V' or 'B', LWORK >= 2*SDIM*(N-SDIM),
*          where SDIM is the number of selected eigenvalues computed by
*          this routine.  Note that 2*SDIM*(N-SDIM) <= N*N/2. Note also
*          that an error is only returned if LWORK < max(1,2*N), but if
*          SENSE = 'E' or 'V' or 'B' this may not be large enough.
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates upper bound on the optimal size of the
*          array WORK, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK
*          array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued by
*          XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*
*  BWORK   (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N)
*          Not referenced if SORT = 'N'.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0: if INFO = i, and i is
*             <= N: the QR algorithm failed to compute all the
*                   eigenvalues; elements 1:ILO-1 and i+1:N of W
*                   contain those eigenvalues which have converged; if
*                   JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the transformation which
*                   reduces A to its partially converged Schur form.
*             = N+1: the eigenvalues could not be reordered because some
*                   eigenvalues were too close to separate (the problem
*                   is very ill-conditioned);
*             = N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some
*                   complex eigenvalues so that leading eigenvalues in
*                   the Schur form no longer satisfy SELECT=.TRUE.  This
*                   could also be caused by underflow due to scaling.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeev

```USAGE:
w, vl, vr, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeev( jobvl, jobvr, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEEV( JOBVL, JOBVR, N, A, LDA, W, VL, LDVL, VR, LDVR, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEEV computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the
*  eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors.
*
*  The right eigenvector v(j) of A satisfies
*                   A * v(j) = lambda(j) * v(j)
*  where lambda(j) is its eigenvalue.
*  The left eigenvector u(j) of A satisfies
*                u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H
*  where u(j)**H denotes the conjugate transpose of u(j).
*
*  The computed eigenvectors are normalized to have Euclidean norm
*  equal to 1 and largest component real.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBVL   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': left eigenvectors of A are not computed;
*          = 'V': left eigenvectors of are computed.
*
*  JOBVR   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': right eigenvectors of A are not computed;
*          = 'V': right eigenvectors of A are computed.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been overwritten.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  W       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          W contains the computed eigenvalues.
*
*  VL      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVL,N)
*          If JOBVL = 'V', the left eigenvectors u(j) are stored one
*          after another in the columns of VL, in the same order
*          as their eigenvalues.
*          If JOBVL = 'N', VL is not referenced.
*          u(j) = VL(:,j), the j-th column of VL.
*
*  LDVL    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VL.  LDVL >= 1; if
*          JOBVL = 'V', LDVL >= N.
*
*  VR      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVR,N)
*          If JOBVR = 'V', the right eigenvectors v(j) are stored one
*          after another in the columns of VR, in the same order
*          as their eigenvalues.
*          If JOBVR = 'N', VR is not referenced.
*          v(j) = VR(:,j), the j-th column of VR.
*
*  LDVR    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VR.  LDVR >= 1; if
*          JOBVR = 'V', LDVR >= N.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,2*N).
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  if INFO = i, the QR algorithm failed to compute all the
*                eigenvalues, and no eigenvectors have been computed;
*                elements and i+1:N of W contain eigenvalues which have
*                converged.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeevx

```USAGE:
w, vl, vr, ilo, ihi, scale, abnrm, rconde, rcondv, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeevx( balanc, jobvl, jobvr, sense, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEEVX( BALANC, JOBVL, JOBVR, SENSE, N, A, LDA, W, VL, LDVL, VR, LDVR, ILO, IHI, SCALE, ABNRM, RCONDE, RCONDV, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEEVX computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the
*  eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors.
*
*  Optionally also, it computes a balancing transformation to improve
*  the conditioning of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (ILO, IHI,
*  SCALE, and ABNRM), reciprocal condition numbers for the eigenvalues
*  (RCONDE), and reciprocal condition numbers for the right
*  eigenvectors (RCONDV).
*
*  The right eigenvector v(j) of A satisfies
*                   A * v(j) = lambda(j) * v(j)
*  where lambda(j) is its eigenvalue.
*  The left eigenvector u(j) of A satisfies
*                u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H
*  where u(j)**H denotes the conjugate transpose of u(j).
*
*  The computed eigenvectors are normalized to have Euclidean norm
*  equal to 1 and largest component real.
*
*  Balancing a matrix means permuting the rows and columns to make it
*  more nearly upper triangular, and applying a diagonal similarity
*  transformation D * A * D**(-1), where D is a diagonal matrix, to
*  make its rows and columns closer in norm and the condition numbers
*  of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors smaller.  The computed
*  reciprocal condition numbers correspond to the balanced matrix.
*  Permuting rows and columns will not change the condition numbers
*  (in exact arithmetic) but diagonal scaling will.  For further
*  explanation of balancing, see section 4.10.2 of the LAPACK
*  Users' Guide.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  BALANC  (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Indicates how the input matrix should be diagonally scaled
*          and/or permuted to improve the conditioning of its
*          eigenvalues.
*          = 'N': Do not diagonally scale or permute;
*          = 'P': Perform permutations to make the matrix more nearly
*                 upper triangular. Do not diagonally scale;
*          = 'S': Diagonally scale the matrix, ie. replace A by
*                 D*A*D**(-1), where D is a diagonal matrix chosen
*                 to make the rows and columns of A more equal in
*                 norm. Do not permute;
*          = 'B': Both diagonally scale and permute A.
*
*          Computed reciprocal condition numbers will be for the matrix
*          after balancing and/or permuting. Permuting does not change
*          condition numbers (in exact arithmetic), but balancing does.
*
*  JOBVL   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': left eigenvectors of A are not computed;
*          = 'V': left eigenvectors of A are computed.
*          If SENSE = 'E' or 'B', JOBVL must = 'V'.
*
*  JOBVR   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': right eigenvectors of A are not computed;
*          = 'V': right eigenvectors of A are computed.
*          If SENSE = 'E' or 'B', JOBVR must = 'V'.
*
*  SENSE   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Determines which reciprocal condition numbers are computed.
*          = 'N': None are computed;
*          = 'E': Computed for eigenvalues only;
*          = 'V': Computed for right eigenvectors only;
*          = 'B': Computed for eigenvalues and right eigenvectors.
*
*          If SENSE = 'E' or 'B', both left and right eigenvectors
*          must also be computed (JOBVL = 'V' and JOBVR = 'V').
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been overwritten.  If JOBVL = 'V' or
*          JOBVR = 'V', A contains the Schur form of the balanced
*          version of the matrix A.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  W       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          W contains the computed eigenvalues.
*
*  VL      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVL,N)
*          If JOBVL = 'V', the left eigenvectors u(j) are stored one
*          after another in the columns of VL, in the same order
*          as their eigenvalues.
*          If JOBVL = 'N', VL is not referenced.
*          u(j) = VL(:,j), the j-th column of VL.
*
*  LDVL    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VL.  LDVL >= 1; if
*          JOBVL = 'V', LDVL >= N.
*
*  VR      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVR,N)
*          If JOBVR = 'V', the right eigenvectors v(j) are stored one
*          after another in the columns of VR, in the same order
*          as their eigenvalues.
*          If JOBVR = 'N', VR is not referenced.
*          v(j) = VR(:,j), the j-th column of VR.
*
*  LDVR    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VR.  LDVR >= 1; if
*          JOBVR = 'V', LDVR >= N.
*
*  ILO     (output) INTEGER
*  IHI     (output) INTEGER
*          ILO and IHI are integer values determined when A was
*          balanced.  The balanced A(i,j) = 0 if I > J and
*          J = 1,...,ILO-1 or I = IHI+1,...,N.
*
*  SCALE   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          Details of the permutations and scaling factors applied
*          when balancing A.  If P(j) is the index of the row and column
*          interchanged with row and column j, and D(j) is the scaling
*          factor applied to row and column j, then
*          SCALE(J) = P(J),    for J = 1,...,ILO-1
*                   = D(J),    for J = ILO,...,IHI
*                   = P(J)     for J = IHI+1,...,N.
*          The order in which the interchanges are made is N to IHI+1,
*          then 1 to ILO-1.
*
*  ABNRM   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The one-norm of the balanced matrix (the maximum
*          of the sum of absolute values of elements of any column).
*
*  RCONDE  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          RCONDE(j) is the reciprocal condition number of the j-th
*          eigenvalue.
*
*  RCONDV  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          RCONDV(j) is the reciprocal condition number of the j-th
*          right eigenvector.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  If SENSE = 'N' or 'E',
*          LWORK >= max(1,2*N), and if SENSE = 'V' or 'B',
*          LWORK >= N*N+2*N.
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  if INFO = i, the QR algorithm failed to compute all the
*                eigenvalues, and no eigenvectors or condition numbers
*                have been computed; elements 1:ILO-1 and i+1:N of W
*                contain eigenvalues which have converged.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgegs

```USAGE:
alpha, beta, vsl, vsr, work, info, a, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgegs( jobvsl, jobvsr, a, b, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEGS( JOBVSL, JOBVSR, N, A, LDA, B, LDB, ALPHA, BETA, VSL, LDVSL, VSR, LDVSR, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine ZGGES.
*
*  ZGEGS computes the eigenvalues, Schur form, and, optionally, the
*  left and or/right Schur vectors of a complex matrix pair (A,B).
*  Given two square matrices A and B, the generalized Schur
*  factorization has the form
*
*     A = Q*S*Z**H,  B = Q*T*Z**H
*
*  where Q and Z are unitary matrices and S and T are upper triangular.
*  The columns of Q are the left Schur vectors
*  and the columns of Z are the right Schur vectors.
*
*  If only the eigenvalues of (A,B) are needed, the driver routine
*  ZGEGV should be used instead.  See ZGEGV for a description of the
*  eigenvalues of the generalized nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem
*  (GNEP).
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBVSL   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N':  do not compute the left Schur vectors;
*          = 'V':  compute the left Schur vectors (returned in VSL).
*
*  JOBVSR   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N':  do not compute the right Schur vectors;
*          = 'V':  compute the right Schur vectors (returned in VSR).
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrices A, B, VSL, and VSR.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA, N)
*          On entry, the matrix A.
*          On exit, the upper triangular matrix S from the generalized
*          Schur factorization.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB, N)
*          On entry, the matrix B.
*          On exit, the upper triangular matrix T from the generalized
*          Schur factorization.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  ALPHA   (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          The complex scalars alpha that define the eigenvalues of
*          GNEP.  ALPHA(j) = S(j,j), the diagonal element of the Schur
*          form of A.
*
*  BETA    (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          The non-negative real scalars beta that define the
*          eigenvalues of GNEP.  BETA(j) = T(j,j), the diagonal element
*          of the triangular factor T.
*
*          Together, the quantities alpha = ALPHA(j) and beta = BETA(j)
*          represent the j-th eigenvalue of the matrix pair (A,B), in
*          one of the forms lambda = alpha/beta or mu = beta/alpha.
*          Since either lambda or mu may overflow, they should not,
*          in general, be computed.
*
*
*  VSL     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVSL,N)
*          If JOBVSL = 'V', the matrix of left Schur vectors Q.
*          Not referenced if JOBVSL = 'N'.
*
*  LDVSL   (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the matrix VSL. LDVSL >= 1, and
*          if JOBVSL = 'V', LDVSL >= N.
*
*  VSR     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVSR,N)
*          If JOBVSR = 'V', the matrix of right Schur vectors Z.
*          Not referenced if JOBVSR = 'N'.
*
*  LDVSR   (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the matrix VSR. LDVSR >= 1, and
*          if JOBVSR = 'V', LDVSR >= N.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,2*N).
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*          To compute the optimal value of LWORK, call ILAENV to get
*          blocksizes (for ZGEQRF, ZUNMQR, and CUNGQR.)  Then compute:
*          NB  -- MAX of the blocksizes for ZGEQRF, ZUNMQR, and CUNGQR;
*          the optimal LWORK is N*(NB+1).
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (3*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          =1,...,N:
*                The QZ iteration failed.  (A,B) are not in Schur
*                form, but ALPHA(j) and BETA(j) should be correct for
*                j=INFO+1,...,N.
*          > N:  errors that usually indicate LAPACK problems:
*                =N+1: error return from ZGGBAL
*                =N+2: error return from ZGEQRF
*                =N+3: error return from ZUNMQR
*                =N+4: error return from ZUNGQR
*                =N+5: error return from ZGGHRD
*                =N+6: error return from ZHGEQZ (other than failed
*                                               iteration)
*                =N+7: error return from ZGGBAK (computing VSL)
*                =N+8: error return from ZGGBAK (computing VSR)
*                =N+9: error return from ZLASCL (various places)
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgegv

```USAGE:
alpha, beta, vl, vr, work, rwork, info, a, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgegv( jobvl, jobvr, a, b, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEGV( JOBVL, JOBVR, N, A, LDA, B, LDB, ALPHA, BETA, VL, LDVL, VR, LDVR, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine ZGGEV.
*
*  ZGEGV computes the eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right
*  eigenvectors of a complex matrix pair (A,B).
*  Given two square matrices A and B,
*  the generalized nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem (GNEP) is to find the
*  eigenvalues lambda and corresponding (non-zero) eigenvectors x such
*  that
*     A*x = lambda*B*x.
*
*  An alternate form is to find the eigenvalues mu and corresponding
*  eigenvectors y such that
*     mu*A*y = B*y.
*
*  These two forms are equivalent with mu = 1/lambda and x = y if
*  neither lambda nor mu is zero.  In order to deal with the case that
*  lambda or mu is zero or small, two values alpha and beta are returned
*  for each eigenvalue, such that lambda = alpha/beta and
*  mu = beta/alpha.
*
*  The vectors x and y in the above equations are right eigenvectors of
*  the matrix pair (A,B).  Vectors u and v satisfying
*     u**H*A = lambda*u**H*B  or  mu*v**H*A = v**H*B
*  are left eigenvectors of (A,B).
*
*  Note: this routine performs "full balancing" on A and B -- see
*  "Further Details", below.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBVL   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N':  do not compute the left generalized eigenvectors;
*          = 'V':  compute the left generalized eigenvectors (returned
*                  in VL).
*
*  JOBVR   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N':  do not compute the right generalized eigenvectors;
*          = 'V':  compute the right generalized eigenvectors (returned
*                  in VR).
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrices A, B, VL, and VR.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA, N)
*          On entry, the matrix A.
*          If JOBVL = 'V' or JOBVR = 'V', then on exit A
*          contains the Schur form of A from the generalized Schur
*          factorization of the pair (A,B) after balancing.  If no
*          eigenvectors were computed, then only the diagonal elements
*          of the Schur form will be correct.  See ZGGHRD and ZHGEQZ
*          for details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB, N)
*          On entry, the matrix B.
*          If JOBVL = 'V' or JOBVR = 'V', then on exit B contains the
*          upper triangular matrix obtained from B in the generalized
*          Schur factorization of the pair (A,B) after balancing.
*          If no eigenvectors were computed, then only the diagonal
*          elements of B will be correct.  See ZGGHRD and ZHGEQZ for
*          details.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  ALPHA   (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          The complex scalars alpha that define the eigenvalues of
*          GNEP.
*
*  BETA    (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*          The complex scalars beta that define the eigenvalues of GNEP.
*
*          Together, the quantities alpha = ALPHA(j) and beta = BETA(j)
*          represent the j-th eigenvalue of the matrix pair (A,B), in
*          one of the forms lambda = alpha/beta or mu = beta/alpha.
*          Since either lambda or mu may overflow, they should not,
*          in general, be computed.
*
*  VL      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVL,N)
*          If JOBVL = 'V', the left eigenvectors u(j) are stored
*          in the columns of VL, in the same order as their eigenvalues.
*          Each eigenvector is scaled so that its largest component has
*          abs(real part) + abs(imag. part) = 1, except for eigenvectors
*          corresponding to an eigenvalue with alpha = beta = 0, which
*          are set to zero.
*          Not referenced if JOBVL = 'N'.
*
*  LDVL    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the matrix VL. LDVL >= 1, and
*          if JOBVL = 'V', LDVL >= N.
*
*  VR      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVR,N)
*          If JOBVR = 'V', the right eigenvectors x(j) are stored
*          in the columns of VR, in the same order as their eigenvalues.
*          Each eigenvector is scaled so that its largest component has
*          abs(real part) + abs(imag. part) = 1, except for eigenvectors
*          corresponding to an eigenvalue with alpha = beta = 0, which
*          are set to zero.
*          Not referenced if JOBVR = 'N'.
*
*  LDVR    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the matrix VR. LDVR >= 1, and
*          if JOBVR = 'V', LDVR >= N.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,2*N).
*          For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.
*          To compute the optimal value of LWORK, call ILAENV to get
*          blocksizes (for ZGEQRF, ZUNMQR, and ZUNGQR.)  Then compute:
*          NB  -- MAX of the blocksizes for ZGEQRF, ZUNMQR, and ZUNGQR;
*          The optimal LWORK is  MAX( 2*N, N*(NB+1) ).
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (8*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          =1,...,N:
*                The QZ iteration failed.  No eigenvectors have been
*                calculated, but ALPHA(j) and BETA(j) should be
*                correct for j=INFO+1,...,N.
*          > N:  errors that usually indicate LAPACK problems:
*                =N+1: error return from ZGGBAL
*                =N+2: error return from ZGEQRF
*                =N+3: error return from ZUNMQR
*                =N+4: error return from ZUNGQR
*                =N+5: error return from ZGGHRD
*                =N+6: error return from ZHGEQZ (other than failed
*                                               iteration)
*                =N+7: error return from ZTGEVC
*                =N+8: error return from ZGGBAK (computing VL)
*                =N+9: error return from ZGGBAK (computing VR)
*                =N+10: error return from ZLASCL (various calls)
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Balancing
*  ---------
*
*  This driver calls ZGGBAL to both permute and scale rows and columns
*  of A and B.  The permutations PL and PR are chosen so that PL*A*PR
*  and PL*B*R will be upper triangular except for the diagonal blocks
*  A(i:j,i:j) and B(i:j,i:j), with i and j as close together as
*  possible.  The diagonal scaling matrices DL and DR are chosen so
*  that the pair  DL*PL*A*PR*DR, DL*PL*B*PR*DR have elements close to
*  one (except for the elements that start out zero.)
*
*  After the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the balanced matrices
*  have been computed, ZGGBAK transforms the eigenvectors back to what
*  they would have been (in perfect arithmetic) if they had not been
*  balanced.
*
*  Contents of A and B on Exit
*  -------- -- - --- - -- ----
*
*  If any eigenvectors are computed (either JOBVL='V' or JOBVR='V' or
*  both), then on exit the arrays A and B will contain the complex Schur
*  form[*] of the "balanced" versions of A and B.  If no eigenvectors
*  are computed, then only the diagonal blocks will be correct.
*
*  [*] In other words, upper triangular form.
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgehd2

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgehd2( ilo, ihi, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEHD2( N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEHD2 reduces a complex general matrix A to upper Hessenberg form H
*  by a unitary similarity transformation:  Q' * A * Q = H .
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  ILO     (input) INTEGER
*  IHI     (input) INTEGER
*          It is assumed that A is already upper triangular in rows
*          and columns 1:ILO-1 and IHI+1:N. ILO and IHI are normally
*          set by a previous call to ZGEBAL; otherwise they should be
*          set to 1 and N respectively. See Further Details.
*          1 <= ILO <= IHI <= max(1,N).
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the n by n general matrix to be reduced.
*          On exit, the upper triangle and the first subdiagonal of A
*          are overwritten with the upper Hessenberg matrix H, and the
*          elements below the first subdiagonal, with the array TAU,
*          represent the unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary
*          reflectors. See Further Details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N-1)
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of (ihi-ilo) elementary
*  reflectors
*
*     Q = H(ilo) H(ilo+1) . . . H(ihi-1).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i) = 0, v(i+1) = 1 and v(ihi+1:n) = 0; v(i+2:ihi) is stored on
*  exit in A(i+2:ihi,i), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  The contents of A are illustrated by the following example, with
*  n = 7, ilo = 2 and ihi = 6:
*
*  on entry,                        on exit,
*
*  ( a   a   a   a   a   a   a )    (  a   a   h   h   h   h   a )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      a   h   h   h   h   a )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      h   h   h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  h   h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  v3  h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  v3  v4  h   h   h )
*  (                         a )    (                          a )
*
*  where a denotes an element of the original matrix A, h denotes a
*  modified element of the upper Hessenberg matrix H, and vi denotes an
*  element of the vector defining H(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgehrd

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgehrd( ilo, ihi, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEHRD( N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEHRD reduces a complex general matrix A to upper Hessenberg form H by
*  an unitary similarity transformation:  Q' * A * Q = H .
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  ILO     (input) INTEGER
*  IHI     (input) INTEGER
*          It is assumed that A is already upper triangular in rows
*          and columns 1:ILO-1 and IHI+1:N. ILO and IHI are normally
*          set by a previous call to ZGEBAL; otherwise they should be
*          set to 1 and N respectively. See Further Details.
*          1 <= ILO <= IHI <= N, if N > 0; ILO=1 and IHI=0, if N=0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N general matrix to be reduced.
*          On exit, the upper triangle and the first subdiagonal of A
*          are overwritten with the upper Hessenberg matrix H, and the
*          elements below the first subdiagonal, with the array TAU,
*          represent the unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary
*          reflectors. See Further Details.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N-1)
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details). Elements 1:ILO-1 and IHI:N-1 of TAU are set to
*          zero.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LWORK)
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The length of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,N).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is the
*          optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of (ihi-ilo) elementary
*  reflectors
*
*     Q = H(ilo) H(ilo+1) . . . H(ihi-1).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i) = 0, v(i+1) = 1 and v(ihi+1:n) = 0; v(i+2:ihi) is stored on
*  exit in A(i+2:ihi,i), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  The contents of A are illustrated by the following example, with
*  n = 7, ilo = 2 and ihi = 6:
*
*  on entry,                        on exit,
*
*  ( a   a   a   a   a   a   a )    (  a   a   h   h   h   h   a )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      a   h   h   h   h   a )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      h   h   h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  h   h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  v3  h   h   h   h )
*  (     a   a   a   a   a   a )    (      v2  v3  v4  h   h   h )
*  (                         a )    (                          a )
*
*  where a denotes an element of the original matrix A, h denotes a
*  modified element of the upper Hessenberg matrix H, and vi denotes an
*  element of the vector defining H(i).
*
*  This file is a slight modification of LAPACK-3.0's DGEHRD
*  subroutine incorporating improvements proposed by Quintana-Orti and
*  Van de Geijn (2006). (See DLAHR2.)
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelq2

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgelq2( a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELQ2( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELQ2 computes an LQ factorization of a complex m by n matrix A:
*  A = L * Q.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and below the diagonal of the array
*          contain the m by min(m,n) lower trapezoidal matrix L (L is
*          lower triangular if m <= n); the elements above the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of elementary reflectors (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (M)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(k)' . . . H(2)' H(1)', where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; conjg(v(i+1:n)) is stored on exit in
*  A(i,i+1:n), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelqf

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgelqf( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELQF( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELQF computes an LQ factorization of a complex M-by-N matrix A:
*  A = L * Q.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and below the diagonal of the array
*          contain the m-by-min(m,n) lower trapezoidal matrix L (L is
*          lower triangular if m <= n); the elements above the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of elementary reflectors (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,M).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= M*NB, where NB is the
*          optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(k)' . . . H(2)' H(1)', where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; conjg(v(i+1:n)) is stored on exit in
*  A(i,i+1:n), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. Local Scalars ..
LOGICAL            LQUERY
INTEGER            I, IB, IINFO, IWS, K, LDWORK, LWKOPT, NB,
\$                   NBMIN, NX
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGELQ2, ZLARFB, ZLARFT
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX, MIN
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
INTEGER            ILAENV
EXTERNAL           ILAENV
*     ..

```
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## zgels

```USAGE:
work, info, a, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgels( trans, a, b, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELS( TRANS, M, N, NRHS, A, LDA, B, LDB, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELS solves overdetermined or underdetermined complex linear systems
*  involving an M-by-N matrix A, or its conjugate-transpose, using a QR
*  or LQ factorization of A.  It is assumed that A has full rank.
*
*  The following options are provided:
*
*  1. If TRANS = 'N' and m >= n:  find the least squares solution of
*     an overdetermined system, i.e., solve the least squares problem
*                  minimize || B - A*X ||.
*
*  2. If TRANS = 'N' and m < n:  find the minimum norm solution of
*     an underdetermined system A * X = B.
*
*  3. If TRANS = 'C' and m >= n:  find the minimum norm solution of
*     an undetermined system A**H * X = B.
*
*  4. If TRANS = 'C' and m < n:  find the least squares solution of
*     an overdetermined system, i.e., solve the least squares problem
*                  minimize || B - A**H * X ||.
*
*  Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be
*  handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the
*  M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution
*  matrix X.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          = 'N': the linear system involves A;
*          = 'C': the linear system involves A**H.
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of
*          columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*            if M >= N, A is overwritten by details of its QR
*                       factorization as returned by ZGEQRF;
*            if M <  N, A is overwritten by details of its LQ
*                       factorization as returned by ZGELQF.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the matrix B of right hand side vectors, stored
*          columnwise; B is M-by-NRHS if TRANS = 'N', or N-by-NRHS
*          if TRANS = 'C'.
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, B is overwritten by the solution
*          vectors, stored columnwise:
*          if TRANS = 'N' and m >= n, rows 1 to n of B contain the least
*          squares solution vectors; the residual sum of squares for the
*          solution in each column is given by the sum of squares of the
*          modulus of elements N+1 to M in that column;
*          if TRANS = 'N' and m < n, rows 1 to N of B contain the
*          minimum norm solution vectors;
*          if TRANS = 'C' and m >= n, rows 1 to M of B contain the
*          minimum norm solution vectors;
*          if TRANS = 'C' and m < n, rows 1 to M of B contain the
*          least squares solution vectors; the residual sum of squares
*          for the solution in each column is given by the sum of
*          squares of the modulus of elements M+1 to N in that column.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= MAX(1,M,N).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.
*          LWORK >= max( 1, MN + max( MN, NRHS ) ).
*          For optimal performance,
*          LWORK >= max( 1, MN + max( MN, NRHS )*NB ).
*          where MN = min(M,N) and NB is the optimum block size.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO =  i, the i-th diagonal element of the
*                triangular factor of A is zero, so that A does not have
*                full rank; the least squares solution could not be
*                computed.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelsd

```USAGE:
s, rank, work, info, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgelsd( a, b, rcond, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELSD( M, N, NRHS, A, LDA, B, LDB, S, RCOND, RANK, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, IWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELSD computes the minimum-norm solution to a real linear least
*  squares problem:
*      minimize 2-norm(| b - A*x |)
*  using the singular value decomposition (SVD) of A. A is an M-by-N
*  matrix which may be rank-deficient.
*
*  Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be
*  handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the
*  M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution
*  matrix X.
*
*  The problem is solved in three steps:
*  (1) Reduce the coefficient matrix A to bidiagonal form with
*      Householder tranformations, reducing the original problem
*      into a "bidiagonal least squares problem" (BLS)
*  (2) Solve the BLS using a divide and conquer approach.
*  (3) Apply back all the Householder tranformations to solve
*      the original least squares problem.
*
*  The effective rank of A is determined by treating as zero those
*  singular values which are less than RCOND times the largest singular
*  value.
*
*  The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about
*  floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard
*  digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard
*  digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or
*  Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines
*  without guard digits, but we know of none.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been destroyed.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, B is overwritten by the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.
*          If m >= n and RANK = n, the residual sum-of-squares for
*          the solution in the i-th column is given by the sum of
*          squares of the modulus of elements n+1:m in that column.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,M,N).
*
*  S       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The singular values of A in decreasing order.
*          The condition number of A in the 2-norm = S(1)/S(min(m,n)).
*
*  RCOND   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          RCOND is used to determine the effective rank of A.
*          Singular values S(i) <= RCOND*S(1) are treated as zero.
*          If RCOND < 0, machine precision is used instead.
*
*  RANK    (output) INTEGER
*          The effective rank of A, i.e., the number of singular values
*          which are greater than RCOND*S(1).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK must be at least 1.
*          The exact minimum amount of workspace needed depends on M,
*          N and NRHS. As long as LWORK is at least
*              2*N + N*NRHS
*          if M is greater than or equal to N or
*              2*M + M*NRHS
*          if M is less than N, the code will execute correctly.
*          For good performance, LWORK should generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the array WORK and the
*          minimum sizes of the arrays RWORK and IWORK, and returns
*          these values as the first entries of the WORK, RWORK and
*          IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK is issued
*          by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LRWORK))
*          LRWORK >=
*             10*N + 2*N*SMLSIZ + 8*N*NLVL + 3*SMLSIZ*NRHS +
*             MAX( (SMLSIZ+1)**2, N*(1+NRHS) + 2*NRHS )
*          if M is greater than or equal to N or
*             10*M + 2*M*SMLSIZ + 8*M*NLVL + 3*SMLSIZ*NRHS +
*             MAX( (SMLSIZ+1)**2, N*(1+NRHS) + 2*NRHS )
*          if M is less than N, the code will execute correctly.
*          SMLSIZ is returned by ILAENV and is equal to the maximum
*          size of the subproblems at the bottom of the computation
*          tree (usually about 25), and
*             NLVL = MAX( 0, INT( LOG_2( MIN( M,N )/(SMLSIZ+1) ) ) + 1 )
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, RWORK(1) returns the minimum LRWORK.
*
*  IWORK   (workspace) INTEGER array, dimension (MAX(1,LIWORK))
*          LIWORK >= max(1, 3*MINMN*NLVL + 11*MINMN),
*          where MINMN = MIN( M,N ).
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, IWORK(1) returns the minimum LIWORK.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  the algorithm for computing the SVD failed to converge;
*                if INFO = i, i off-diagonal elements of an intermediate
*                bidiagonal form did not converge to zero.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Based on contributions by
*     Ming Gu and Ren-Cang Li, Computer Science Division, University of
*       California at Berkeley, USA
*     Osni Marques, LBNL/NERSC, USA
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelss

```USAGE:
s, rank, work, info, a, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgelss( a, b, rcond, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELSS( M, N, NRHS, A, LDA, B, LDB, S, RCOND, RANK, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELSS computes the minimum norm solution to a complex linear
*  least squares problem:
*
*  Minimize 2-norm(| b - A*x |).
*
*  using the singular value decomposition (SVD) of A. A is an M-by-N
*  matrix which may be rank-deficient.
*
*  Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be
*  handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the
*  M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix
*  X.
*
*  The effective rank of A is determined by treating as zero those
*  singular values which are less than RCOND times the largest singular
*  value.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the first min(m,n) rows of A are overwritten with
*          its right singular vectors, stored rowwise.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, B is overwritten by the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.
*          If m >= n and RANK = n, the residual sum-of-squares for
*          the solution in the i-th column is given by the sum of
*          squares of the modulus of elements n+1:m in that column.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,M,N).
*
*  S       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The singular values of A in decreasing order.
*          The condition number of A in the 2-norm = S(1)/S(min(m,n)).
*
*  RCOND   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          RCOND is used to determine the effective rank of A.
*          Singular values S(i) <= RCOND*S(1) are treated as zero.
*          If RCOND < 0, machine precision is used instead.
*
*  RANK    (output) INTEGER
*          The effective rank of A, i.e., the number of singular values
*          which are greater than RCOND*S(1).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= 1, and also:
*          LWORK >=  2*min(M,N) + max(M,N,NRHS)
*          For good performance, LWORK should generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (5*min(M,N))
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  the algorithm for computing the SVD failed to converge;
*                if INFO = i, i off-diagonal elements of an intermediate
*                bidiagonal form did not converge to zero.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelsx

```USAGE:
rank, info, a, b, jpvt = NumRu::Lapack.zgelsx( m, a, b, jpvt, rcond, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELSX( M, N, NRHS, A, LDA, B, LDB, JPVT, RCOND, RANK, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine ZGELSY.
*
*  ZGELSX computes the minimum-norm solution to a complex linear least
*  squares problem:
*      minimize || A * X - B ||
*  using a complete orthogonal factorization of A.  A is an M-by-N
*  matrix which may be rank-deficient.
*
*  Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be
*  handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the
*  M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution
*  matrix X.
*
*  The routine first computes a QR factorization with column pivoting:
*      A * P = Q * [ R11 R12 ]
*                  [  0  R22 ]
*  with R11 defined as the largest leading submatrix whose estimated
*  condition number is less than 1/RCOND.  The order of R11, RANK,
*  is the effective rank of A.
*
*  Then, R22 is considered to be negligible, and R12 is annihilated
*  by unitary transformations from the right, arriving at the
*  complete orthogonal factorization:
*     A * P = Q * [ T11 0 ] * Z
*                 [  0  0 ]
*  The minimum-norm solution is then
*     X = P * Z' [ inv(T11)*Q1'*B ]
*                [        0       ]
*  where Q1 consists of the first RANK columns of Q.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of
*          columns of matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been overwritten by details of its
*          complete orthogonal factorization.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.
*          If m >= n and RANK = n, the residual sum-of-squares for
*          the solution in the i-th column is given by the sum of
*          squares of elements N+1:M in that column.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,M,N).
*
*  JPVT    (input/output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          On entry, if JPVT(i) .ne. 0, the i-th column of A is an
*          initial column, otherwise it is a free column.  Before
*          the QR factorization of A, all initial columns are
*          permuted to the leading positions; only the remaining
*          free columns are moved as a result of column pivoting
*          during the factorization.
*          On exit, if JPVT(i) = k, then the i-th column of A*P
*          was the k-th column of A.
*
*  RCOND   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          RCOND is used to determine the effective rank of A, which
*          is defined as the order of the largest leading triangular
*          submatrix R11 in the QR factorization with pivoting of A,
*          whose estimated condition number < 1/RCOND.
*
*  RANK    (output) INTEGER
*          The effective rank of A, i.e., the order of the submatrix
*          R11.  This is the same as the order of the submatrix T11
*          in the complete orthogonal factorization of A.
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension
*                      (min(M,N) + max( N, 2*min(M,N)+NRHS )),
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgelsy

```USAGE:
rank, work, info, a, b, jpvt = NumRu::Lapack.zgelsy( a, b, jpvt, rcond, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGELSY( M, N, NRHS, A, LDA, B, LDB, JPVT, RCOND, RANK, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGELSY computes the minimum-norm solution to a complex linear least
*  squares problem:
*      minimize || A * X - B ||
*  using a complete orthogonal factorization of A.  A is an M-by-N
*  matrix which may be rank-deficient.
*
*  Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be
*  handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the
*  M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution
*  matrix X.
*
*  The routine first computes a QR factorization with column pivoting:
*      A * P = Q * [ R11 R12 ]
*                  [  0  R22 ]
*  with R11 defined as the largest leading submatrix whose estimated
*  condition number is less than 1/RCOND.  The order of R11, RANK,
*  is the effective rank of A.
*
*  Then, R22 is considered to be negligible, and R12 is annihilated
*  by unitary transformations from the right, arriving at the
*  complete orthogonal factorization:
*     A * P = Q * [ T11 0 ] * Z
*                 [  0  0 ]
*  The minimum-norm solution is then
*     X = P * Z' [ inv(T11)*Q1'*B ]
*                [        0       ]
*  where Q1 consists of the first RANK columns of Q.
*
*  This routine is basically identical to the original xGELSX except
*  three differences:
*    o The permutation of matrix B (the right hand side) is faster and
*      more simple.
*    o The call to the subroutine xGEQPF has been substituted by the
*      the call to the subroutine xGEQP3. This subroutine is a Blas-3
*      version of the QR factorization with column pivoting.
*    o Matrix B (the right hand side) is updated with Blas-3.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of
*          columns of matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, A has been overwritten by details of its
*          complete orthogonal factorization.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,M,N).
*
*  JPVT    (input/output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          On entry, if JPVT(i) .ne. 0, the i-th column of A is permuted
*          to the front of AP, otherwise column i is a free column.
*          On exit, if JPVT(i) = k, then the i-th column of A*P
*          was the k-th column of A.
*
*  RCOND   (input) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          RCOND is used to determine the effective rank of A, which
*          is defined as the order of the largest leading triangular
*          submatrix R11 in the QR factorization with pivoting of A,
*          whose estimated condition number < 1/RCOND.
*
*  RANK    (output) INTEGER
*          The effective rank of A, i.e., the order of the submatrix
*          R11.  This is the same as the order of the submatrix T11
*          in the complete orthogonal factorization of A.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.
*          The unblocked strategy requires that:
*            LWORK >= MN + MAX( 2*MN, N+1, MN+NRHS )
*          where MN = min(M,N).
*          The block algorithm requires that:
*            LWORK >= MN + MAX( 2*MN, NB*(N+1), MN+MN*NB, MN+NB*NRHS )
*          where NB is an upper bound on the blocksize returned
*          by ILAENV for the routines ZGEQP3, ZTZRZF, CTZRQF, ZUNMQR,
*          and ZUNMRZ.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Based on contributions by
*    A. Petitet, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville, USA
*    E. Quintana-Orti, Depto. de Informatica, Universidad Jaime I, Spain
*    G. Quintana-Orti, Depto. de Informatica, Universidad Jaime I, Spain
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeql2

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeql2( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQL2( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQL2 computes a QL factorization of a complex m by n matrix A:
*  A = Q * L.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix A.
*          On exit, if m >= n, the lower triangle of the subarray
*          A(m-n+1:m,1:n) contains the n by n lower triangular matrix L;
*          if m <= n, the elements on and below the (n-m)-th
*          superdiagonal contain the m by n lower trapezoidal matrix L;
*          the remaining elements, with the array TAU, represent the
*          unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary reflectors
*          (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(k) . . . H(2) H(1), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(m-k+i+1:m) = 0 and v(m-k+i) = 1; v(1:m-k+i-1) is stored on exit in
*  A(1:m-k+i-1,n-k+i), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeqlf

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqlf( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQLF( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQLF computes a QL factorization of a complex M-by-N matrix A:
*  A = Q * L.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit,
*          if m >= n, the lower triangle of the subarray
*          A(m-n+1:m,1:n) contains the N-by-N lower triangular matrix L;
*          if m <= n, the elements on and below the (n-m)-th
*          superdiagonal contain the M-by-N lower trapezoidal matrix L;
*          the remaining elements, with the array TAU, represent the
*          unitary matrix Q as a product of elementary reflectors
*          (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,N).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is
*          the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(k) . . . H(2) H(1), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(m-k+i+1:m) = 0 and v(m-k+i) = 1; v(1:m-k+i-1) is stored on exit in
*  A(1:m-k+i-1,n-k+i), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. Local Scalars ..
LOGICAL            LQUERY
INTEGER            I, IB, IINFO, IWS, K, KI, KK, LDWORK, LWKOPT,
\$                   MU, NB, NBMIN, NU, NX
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGEQL2, ZLARFB, ZLARFT
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX, MIN
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
INTEGER            ILAENV
EXTERNAL           ILAENV
*     ..

```
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## zgeqp3

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a, jpvt = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqp3( m, a, jpvt, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQP3( M, N, A, LDA, JPVT, TAU, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQP3 computes a QR factorization with column pivoting of a
*  matrix A:  A*P = Q*R  using Level 3 BLAS.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the upper triangle of the array contains the
*          min(M,N)-by-N upper trapezoidal matrix R; the elements below
*          the diagonal, together with the array TAU, represent the
*          unitary matrix Q as a product of min(M,N) elementary
*          reflectors.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  JPVT    (input/output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          On entry, if JPVT(J).ne.0, the J-th column of A is permuted
*          to the front of A*P (a leading column); if JPVT(J)=0,
*          the J-th column of A is a free column.
*          On exit, if JPVT(J)=K, then the J-th column of A*P was the
*          the K-th column of A.
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors.
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO=0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= N+1.
*          For optimal performance LWORK >= ( N+1 )*NB, where NB
*          is the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit.
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a real/complex scalar, and v is a real/complex vector
*  with v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in
*  A(i+1:m,i), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  Based on contributions by
*    G. Quintana-Orti, Depto. de Informatica, Universidad Jaime I, Spain
*    X. Sun, Computer Science Dept., Duke University, USA
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeqpf

```USAGE:
tau, info, a, jpvt = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqpf( m, a, jpvt, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQPF( M, N, A, LDA, JPVT, TAU, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine ZGEQP3.
*
*  ZGEQPF computes a QR factorization with column pivoting of a
*  complex M-by-N matrix A: A*P = Q*R.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A. M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A. N >= 0
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the upper triangle of the array contains the
*          min(M,N)-by-N upper triangular matrix R; the elements
*          below the diagonal, together with the array TAU,
*          represent the unitary matrix Q as a product of
*          min(m,n) elementary reflectors.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  JPVT    (input/output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          On entry, if JPVT(i) .ne. 0, the i-th column of A is permuted
*          to the front of A*P (a leading column); if JPVT(i) = 0,
*          the i-th column of A is a free column.
*          On exit, if JPVT(i) = k, then the i-th column of A*P
*          was the k-th column of A.
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors.
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(n)
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in A(i+1:m,i).
*
*  The matrix P is represented in jpvt as follows: If
*     jpvt(j) = i
*  then the jth column of P is the ith canonical unit vector.
*
*  Partial column norm updating strategy modified by
*    Z. Drmac and Z. Bujanovic, Dept. of Mathematics,
*    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
*     June 2010
*  For more details see LAPACK Working Note 176.
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeqr2

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqr2( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQR2( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQR2 computes a QR factorization of a complex m by n matrix A:
*  A = Q * R.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and above the diagonal of the array
*          contain the min(m,n) by n upper trapezoidal matrix R (R is
*          upper triangular if m >= n); the elements below the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of elementary reflectors (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in A(i+1:m,i),
*  and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeqr2p

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqr2p( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQR2P( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQR2P computes a QR factorization of a complex m by n matrix A:
*  A = Q * R.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and above the diagonal of the array
*          contain the min(m,n) by n upper trapezoidal matrix R (R is
*          upper triangular if m >= n); the elements below the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of elementary reflectors (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in A(i+1:m,i),
*  and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgeqrf

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqrf( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQRF( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQRF computes a QR factorization of a complex M-by-N matrix A:
*  A = Q * R.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and above the diagonal of the array
*          contain the min(M,N)-by-N upper trapezoidal matrix R (R is
*          upper triangular if m >= n); the elements below the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of min(m,n) elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,N).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is
*          the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in A(i+1:m,i),
*  and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. Local Scalars ..
LOGICAL            LQUERY
INTEGER            I, IB, IINFO, IWS, K, LDWORK, LWKOPT, NB,
\$                   NBMIN, NX
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGEQR2, ZLARFB, ZLARFT
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX, MIN
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
INTEGER            ILAENV
EXTERNAL           ILAENV
*     ..

```
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## zgeqrfp

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgeqrfp( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGEQRFP( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGEQRFP computes a QR factorization of a complex M-by-N matrix A:
*  A = Q * R.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit, the elements on and above the diagonal of the array
*          contain the min(M,N)-by-N upper trapezoidal matrix R (R is
*          upper triangular if m >= n); the elements below the diagonal,
*          with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix Q as a
*          product of min(m,n) elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,N).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is
*          the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1) H(2) . . . H(k), where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(1:i-1) = 0 and v(i) = 1; v(i+1:m) is stored on exit in A(i+1:m,i),
*  and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. Local Scalars ..
LOGICAL            LQUERY
INTEGER            I, IB, IINFO, IWS, K, LDWORK, LWKOPT, NB,
\$                   NBMIN, NX
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGEQR2P, ZLARFB, ZLARFT
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX, MIN
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
INTEGER            ILAENV
EXTERNAL           ILAENV
*     ..

```
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## zgerfs

```USAGE:
ferr, berr, info, x = NumRu::Lapack.zgerfs( trans, a, af, ipiv, b, x, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGERFS( TRANS, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, B, LDB, X, LDX, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGERFS improves the computed solution to a system of linear
*  equations and provides error bounds and backward error estimates for
*  the solution.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the form of the system of equations:
*          = 'N':  A * X = B     (No transpose)
*          = 'T':  A**T * X = B  (Transpose)
*          = 'C':  A**H * X = B  (Conjugate transpose)
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrices B and X.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          The original N-by-N matrix A.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  AF      (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAF,N)
*          The factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          as computed by ZGETRF.
*
*  LDAF    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array AF.  LDAF >= max(1,N).
*
*  IPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          The pivot indices from ZGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
*          matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  B       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          The right hand side matrix B.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  X       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
*          On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by ZGETRS.
*          On exit, the improved solution matrix X.
*
*  LDX     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array X.  LDX >= max(1,N).
*
*  FERR    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
*          The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector
*          X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X).
*          If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j)
*          is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest
*          element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the
*          largest element in X(j).  The estimate is as reliable as
*          the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight
*          overestimate of the true error.
*
*  BERR    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
*          The componentwise relative backward error of each solution
*          vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in
*          any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*
*  Internal Parameters
*  ===================
*
*  ITMAX is the maximum number of steps of iterative refinement.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgerfsx

```USAGE:
rcond, berr, err_bnds_norm, err_bnds_comp, info, x, params = NumRu::Lapack.zgerfsx( trans, equed, a, af, ipiv, r, c, b, x, params, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGERFSX( TRANS, EQUED, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*     Purpose
*     =======
*
*     ZGERFSX improves the computed solution to a system of linear
*     equations and provides error bounds and backward error estimates
*     for the solution.  In addition to normwise error bound, the code
*     provides maximum componentwise error bound if possible.  See
*     comments for ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the
*     error bounds.
*
*     The original system of linear equations may have been equilibrated
*     before calling this routine, as described by arguments EQUED, R
*     and C below. In this case, the solution and error bounds returned
*     are for the original unequilibrated system.
*

*     Arguments
*     =========
*
*     Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array.  These
*     settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the
*     defaults are acceptable.  If the defaults are acceptable, users
*     can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing
*     the PARAMS argument.
*
*     TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*     Specifies the form of the system of equations:
*       = 'N':  A * X = B     (No transpose)
*       = 'T':  A**T * X = B  (Transpose)
*       = 'C':  A**H * X = B  (Conjugate transpose = Transpose)
*
*     EQUED   (input) CHARACTER*1
*     Specifies the form of equilibration that was done to A
*     before calling this routine. This is needed to compute
*     the solution and error bounds correctly.
*       = 'N':  No equilibration
*       = 'R':  Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
*               diag(R).
*       = 'C':  Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
*               by diag(C).
*       = 'B':  Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
*               replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
*               The right hand side B has been changed accordingly.
*
*     N       (input) INTEGER
*     The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*     NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*     The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*     of the matrices B and X.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*     A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*     The original N-by-N matrix A.
*
*     LDA     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*     AF      (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAF,N)
*     The factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     as computed by ZGETRF.
*
*     LDAF    (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array AF.  LDAF >= max(1,N).
*
*     IPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*     The pivot indices from ZGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
*     matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*     R       (input) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*     The row scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
*     multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
*     is not accessed.
*     If R is accessed, each element of R should be a power of the radix
*     to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
*     powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
*     result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
*     lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
*     input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
*     reliable.
*
*     C       (input) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*     The column scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
*     multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
*     is not accessed.
*     If C is accessed, each element of C should be a power of the radix
*     to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
*     powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
*     result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
*     lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
*     input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
*     reliable.
*
*     B       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*     The right hand side matrix B.
*
*     LDB     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*     X       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
*     On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by ZGETRS.
*     On exit, the improved solution matrix X.
*
*     LDX     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array X.  LDX >= max(1,N).
*
*     RCOND   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*     Reciprocal scaled condition number.  This is an estimate of the
*     reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
*     equilibration (if done).  If this is less than the machine
*     precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
*     to working precision.  Note that the error may still be small even
*     if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-
*     conditioned.
*
*     BERR    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
*     Componentwise relative backward error.  This is the
*     componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j)
*     (i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that
*     makes X(j) an exact solution).
*
*     N_ERR_BNDS (input) INTEGER
*     Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side
*     and each type (normwise or componentwise).  See ERR_BNDS_NORM and
*     ERR_BNDS_COMP below.
*
*     ERR_BNDS_NORM  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
*     For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
*     various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
*     normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
*
*     Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
*             max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))
*            ------------------------------
*                  max_j abs(X(j,i))
*
*     The array is indexed by the type of error information as described
*     below. There currently are up to three pieces of information
*     returned.
*
*     The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith
*     right-hand side.
*
*     The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following
*     three fields:
*     err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
*              reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon').
*
*     err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
*              almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
*              so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
*              be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
*
*     err = 3  Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise
*              reciprocal condition number.  Compared with the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
*              estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
*              numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
*              appropriately scaled matrix Z.
*              Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the
*              radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.
*
*     See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
*     cautions.
*
*     ERR_BNDS_COMP  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
*     For each right-hand side, this array contains information about
*     various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
*     componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
*
*     Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
*                    abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))
*             max_j ----------------------
*                         abs(X(j,i))
*
*     The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the
*     componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error
*     information as described below. There currently are up to three
*     pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If
*     componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then
*     ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed.  If N_ERR_BNDS .LT. 3, then at most
*     the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.
*
*     The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith
*     right-hand side.
*
*     The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following
*     three fields:
*     err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
*              reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon').
*
*     err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
*              almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
*              so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
*              be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
*
*     err = 3  Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise
*              reciprocal condition number.  Compared with the threshold
*              sqrt(n) * dlamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
*              estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
*              numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
*              appropriately scaled matrix Z.
*              Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the
*              current right-hand side and S scales each row of
*              A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row
*              sums of Z are approximately 1.
*
*     See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
*     cautions.
*
*     NPARAMS (input) INTEGER
*     Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS.  If .LE. 0, the
*     PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used.
*
*     PARAMS  (input / output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension NPARAMS
*     Specifies algorithm parameters.  If an entry is .LT. 0.0, then
*     that entry will be filled with default value used for that
*     parameter.  Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults
*     are used for higher-numbered parameters.
*
*       PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative
*            refinement or not.
*         Default: 1.0D+0
*            = 0.0 : No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are
*                    computed.
*            = 1.0 : Use the double-precision refinement algorithm,
*                    possibly with doubled-single computations if the
*                    compilation environment does not support DOUBLE
*                    PRECISION.
*              (other values are reserved for future use)
*
*       PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual
*            computations allowed for refinement.
*         Default: 10
*         Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate
*                     factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If
*                     the factorization uses a technique other than
*                     Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in
*                     err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be
*                     trustworthy.
*
*       PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code
*            will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise
*            relative error in the double-precision algorithm.  Positive
*            is true, 0.0 is false.
*         Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence)
*
*     WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)
*
*     RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*
*     INFO    (output) INTEGER
*       = 0:  Successful exit. The solution to every right-hand side is
*         guaranteed.
*       < 0:  If INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*       > 0 and <= N:  U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero.  The factorization
*         has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so
*         the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0
*         is returned.
*       = N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth right-hand side is
*         not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right-
*         hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but
*         only the first such right-hand side is reported. If a small
*         componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then
*         the Jth right-hand side is the first with a normwise error
*         bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such
*         that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)
*         the Jth right-hand side is the first with either a normwise or
*         componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest
*         J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or
*         ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of
*         ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information
*         about all of the right-hand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or
*         ERR_BNDS_COMP.
*

*     ==================================================================
*

```
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## zgerq2

```USAGE:
tau, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgerq2( a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGERQ2( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGERQ2 computes an RQ factorization of a complex m by n matrix A:
*  A = R * Q.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix A.
*          On exit, if m <= n, the upper triangle of the subarray
*          A(1:m,n-m+1:n) contains the m by m upper triangular matrix R;
*          if m >= n, the elements on and above the (m-n)-th subdiagonal
*          contain the m by n upper trapezoidal matrix R; the remaining
*          elements, with the array TAU, represent the unitary matrix
*          Q as a product of elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (M)
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1)' H(2)' . . . H(k)', where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(n-k+i+1:n) = 0 and v(n-k+i) = 1; conjg(v(1:n-k+i-1)) is stored on
*  exit in A(m-k+i,1:n-k+i-1), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgerqf

```USAGE:
tau, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgerqf( m, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGERQF( M, N, A, LDA, TAU, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGERQF computes an RQ factorization of a complex M-by-N matrix A:
*  A = R * Q.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit,
*          if m <= n, the upper triangle of the subarray
*          A(1:m,n-m+1:n) contains the M-by-M upper triangular matrix R;
*          if m >= n, the elements on and above the (m-n)-th subdiagonal
*          contain the M-by-N upper trapezoidal matrix R;
*          the remaining elements, with the array TAU, represent the
*          unitary matrix Q as a product of min(m,n) elementary
*          reflectors (see Further Details).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  TAU     (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The scalar factors of the elementary reflectors (see Further
*          Details).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,M).
*          For optimum performance LWORK >= M*NB, where NB is
*          the optimal blocksize.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  The matrix Q is represented as a product of elementary reflectors
*
*     Q = H(1)' H(2)' . . . H(k)', where k = min(m,n).
*
*  Each H(i) has the form
*
*     H(i) = I - tau * v * v'
*
*  where tau is a complex scalar, and v is a complex vector with
*  v(n-k+i+1:n) = 0 and v(n-k+i) = 1; conjg(v(1:n-k+i-1)) is stored on
*  exit in A(m-k+i,1:n-k+i-1), and tau in TAU(i).
*
*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. Local Scalars ..
LOGICAL            LQUERY
INTEGER            I, IB, IINFO, IWS, K, KI, KK, LDWORK, LWKOPT,
\$                   MU, NB, NBMIN, NU, NX
*     ..
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGERQ2, ZLARFB, ZLARFT
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX, MIN
*     ..
*     .. External Functions ..
INTEGER            ILAENV
EXTERNAL           ILAENV
*     ..

```
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## zgesc2

```USAGE:
scale, rhs = NumRu::Lapack.zgesc2( a, rhs, ipiv, jpiv, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESC2( N, A, LDA, RHS, IPIV, JPIV, SCALE )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGESC2 solves a system of linear equations
*
*            A * X = scale* RHS
*
*  with a general N-by-N matrix A using the LU factorization with
*  complete pivoting computed by ZGETC2.
*
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA, N)
*          On entry, the  LU part of the factorization of the n-by-n
*          matrix A computed by ZGETC2:  A = P * L * U * Q
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1, N).
*
*  RHS     (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension N.
*          On entry, the right hand side vector b.
*          On exit, the solution vector X.
*
*  IPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N).
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= N, row i of the
*          matrix has been interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  JPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N).
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= j <= N, column j of the
*          matrix has been interchanged with column JPIV(j).
*
*  SCALE    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*           On exit, SCALE contains the scale factor. SCALE is chosen
*           0 <= SCALE <= 1 to prevent owerflow in the solution.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Based on contributions by
*     Bo Kagstrom and Peter Poromaa, Department of Computing Science,
*     Umea University, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden.
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgesdd

```USAGE:
s, u, vt, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgesdd( jobz, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESDD( JOBZ, M, N, A, LDA, S, U, LDU, VT, LDVT, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, IWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGESDD computes the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a complex
*  M-by-N matrix A, optionally computing the left and/or right singular
*  vectors, by using divide-and-conquer method. The SVD is written
*
*       A = U * SIGMA * conjugate-transpose(V)
*
*  where SIGMA is an M-by-N matrix which is zero except for its
*  min(m,n) diagonal elements, U is an M-by-M unitary matrix, and
*  V is an N-by-N unitary matrix.  The diagonal elements of SIGMA
*  are the singular values of A; they are real and non-negative, and
*  are returned in descending order.  The first min(m,n) columns of
*  U and V are the left and right singular vectors of A.
*
*  Note that the routine returns VT = V**H, not V.
*
*  The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about
*  floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard
*  digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard
*  digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or
*  Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines
*  without guard digits, but we know of none.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBZ    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies options for computing all or part of the matrix U:
*          = 'A':  all M columns of U and all N rows of V**H are
*                  returned in the arrays U and VT;
*          = 'S':  the first min(M,N) columns of U and the first
*                  min(M,N) rows of V**H are returned in the arrays U
*                  and VT;
*          = 'O':  If M >= N, the first N columns of U are overwritten
*                  in the array A and all rows of V**H are returned in
*                  the array VT;
*                  otherwise, all columns of U are returned in the
*                  array U and the first M rows of V**H are overwritten
*                  in the array A;
*          = 'N':  no columns of U or rows of V**H are computed.
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the input matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the input matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit,
*          if JOBZ = 'O',  A is overwritten with the first N columns
*                          of U (the left singular vectors, stored
*                          columnwise) if M >= N;
*                          A is overwritten with the first M rows
*                          of V**H (the right singular vectors, stored
*                          rowwise) otherwise.
*          if JOBZ .ne. 'O', the contents of A are destroyed.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  S       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The singular values of A, sorted so that S(i) >= S(i+1).
*
*  U       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDU,UCOL)
*          UCOL = M if JOBZ = 'A' or JOBZ = 'O' and M < N;
*          UCOL = min(M,N) if JOBZ = 'S'.
*          If JOBZ = 'A' or JOBZ = 'O' and M < N, U contains the M-by-M
*          unitary matrix U;
*          if JOBZ = 'S', U contains the first min(M,N) columns of U
*          (the left singular vectors, stored columnwise);
*          if JOBZ = 'O' and M >= N, or JOBZ = 'N', U is not referenced.
*
*  LDU     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array U.  LDU >= 1; if
*          JOBZ = 'S' or 'A' or JOBZ = 'O' and M < N, LDU >= M.
*
*  VT      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVT,N)
*          If JOBZ = 'A' or JOBZ = 'O' and M >= N, VT contains the
*          N-by-N unitary matrix V**H;
*          if JOBZ = 'S', VT contains the first min(M,N) rows of
*          V**H (the right singular vectors, stored rowwise);
*          if JOBZ = 'O' and M < N, or JOBZ = 'N', VT is not referenced.
*
*  LDVT    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VT.  LDVT >= 1; if
*          JOBZ = 'A' or JOBZ = 'O' and M >= N, LDVT >= N;
*          if JOBZ = 'S', LDVT >= min(M,N).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= 1.
*          if JOBZ = 'N', LWORK >= 2*min(M,N)+max(M,N).
*          if JOBZ = 'O',
*                LWORK >= 2*min(M,N)*min(M,N)+2*min(M,N)+max(M,N).
*          if JOBZ = 'S' or 'A',
*                LWORK >= min(M,N)*min(M,N)+2*min(M,N)+max(M,N).
*          For good performance, LWORK should generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, a workspace query is assumed.  The optimal
*          size for the WORK array is calculated and stored in WORK(1),
*          and no other work except argument checking is performed.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LRWORK))
*          If JOBZ = 'N', LRWORK >= 5*min(M,N).
*          Otherwise,
*          LRWORK >= min(M,N)*max(5*min(M,N)+7,2*max(M,N)+2*min(M,N)+1)
*
*  IWORK   (workspace) INTEGER array, dimension (8*min(M,N))
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit.
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  The updating process of DBDSDC did not converge.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Based on contributions by
*     Ming Gu and Huan Ren, Computer Science Division, University of
*     California at Berkeley, USA
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgesv

```USAGE:
ipiv, info, a, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgesv( a, b, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESV( N, NRHS, A, LDA, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGESV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations
*     A * X = B,
*  where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
*
*  The LU decomposition with partial pivoting and row interchanges is
*  used to factor A as
*     A = P * L * U,
*  where P is a permutation matrix, L is unit lower triangular, and U is
*  upper triangular.  The factored form of A is then used to solve the
*  system of equations A * X = B.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
*          matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrix B.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N coefficient matrix A.
*          On exit, the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U; the unit diagonal elements of L are not stored.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  IPIV    (output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          The pivot indices that define the permutation matrix P;
*          row i of the matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the N-by-NRHS matrix of right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO = i, U(i,i) is exactly zero.  The factorization
*                has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
*                singular, so the solution could not be computed.
*

*  =====================================================================
*
*     .. External Subroutines ..
EXTERNAL           XERBLA, ZGETRF, ZGETRS
*     ..
*     .. Intrinsic Functions ..
INTRINSIC          MAX
*     ..

```
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## zgesvd

```USAGE:
s, u, vt, work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgesvd( jobu, jobvt, a, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESVD( JOBU, JOBVT, M, N, A, LDA, S, U, LDU, VT, LDVT, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGESVD computes the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a complex
*  M-by-N matrix A, optionally computing the left and/or right singular
*  vectors. The SVD is written
*
*       A = U * SIGMA * conjugate-transpose(V)
*
*  where SIGMA is an M-by-N matrix which is zero except for its
*  min(m,n) diagonal elements, U is an M-by-M unitary matrix, and
*  V is an N-by-N unitary matrix.  The diagonal elements of SIGMA
*  are the singular values of A; they are real and non-negative, and
*  are returned in descending order.  The first min(m,n) columns of
*  U and V are the left and right singular vectors of A.
*
*  Note that the routine returns V**H, not V.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  JOBU    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies options for computing all or part of the matrix U:
*          = 'A':  all M columns of U are returned in array U:
*          = 'S':  the first min(m,n) columns of U (the left singular
*                  vectors) are returned in the array U;
*          = 'O':  the first min(m,n) columns of U (the left singular
*                  vectors) are overwritten on the array A;
*          = 'N':  no columns of U (no left singular vectors) are
*                  computed.
*
*  JOBVT   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies options for computing all or part of the matrix
*          V**H:
*          = 'A':  all N rows of V**H are returned in the array VT;
*          = 'S':  the first min(m,n) rows of V**H (the right singular
*                  vectors) are returned in the array VT;
*          = 'O':  the first min(m,n) rows of V**H (the right singular
*                  vectors) are overwritten on the array A;
*          = 'N':  no rows of V**H (no right singular vectors) are
*                  computed.
*
*          JOBVT and JOBU cannot both be 'O'.
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the input matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the input matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix A.
*          On exit,
*          if JOBU = 'O',  A is overwritten with the first min(m,n)
*                          columns of U (the left singular vectors,
*                          stored columnwise);
*          if JOBVT = 'O', A is overwritten with the first min(m,n)
*                          rows of V**H (the right singular vectors,
*                          stored rowwise);
*          if JOBU .ne. 'O' and JOBVT .ne. 'O', the contents of A
*                          are destroyed.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  S       (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The singular values of A, sorted so that S(i) >= S(i+1).
*
*  U       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDU,UCOL)
*          (LDU,M) if JOBU = 'A' or (LDU,min(M,N)) if JOBU = 'S'.
*          If JOBU = 'A', U contains the M-by-M unitary matrix U;
*          if JOBU = 'S', U contains the first min(m,n) columns of U
*          (the left singular vectors, stored columnwise);
*          if JOBU = 'N' or 'O', U is not referenced.
*
*  LDU     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array U.  LDU >= 1; if
*          JOBU = 'S' or 'A', LDU >= M.
*
*  VT      (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDVT,N)
*          If JOBVT = 'A', VT contains the N-by-N unitary matrix
*          V**H;
*          if JOBVT = 'S', VT contains the first min(m,n) rows of
*          V**H (the right singular vectors, stored rowwise);
*          if JOBVT = 'N' or 'O', VT is not referenced.
*
*  LDVT    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array VT.  LDVT >= 1; if
*          JOBVT = 'A', LDVT >= N; if JOBVT = 'S', LDVT >= min(M,N).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.
*          LWORK >=  MAX(1,2*MIN(M,N)+MAX(M,N)).
*          For good performance, LWORK should generally be larger.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  RWORK   (workspace) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (5*min(M,N))
*          On exit, if INFO > 0, RWORK(1:MIN(M,N)-1) contains the
*          unconverged superdiagonal elements of an upper bidiagonal
*          matrix B whose diagonal is in S (not necessarily sorted).
*          B satisfies A = U * B * VT, so it has the same singular
*          values as A, and singular vectors related by U and VT.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit.
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
*          > 0:  if ZBDSQR did not converge, INFO specifies how many
*                superdiagonals of an intermediate bidiagonal form B
*                did not converge to zero. See the description of RWORK
*                above for details.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgesvx

```USAGE:
x, rcond, ferr, berr, rwork, info, a, af, ipiv, equed, r, c, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgesvx( fact, trans, a, b, [:af => af, :ipiv => ipiv, :equed => equed, :r => r, :c => c, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESVX( FACT, TRANS, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, EQUED, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGESVX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a complex
*  system of linear equations
*     A * X = B,
*  where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
*
*  Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also
*  provided.
*
*  Description
*  ===========
*
*  The following steps are performed:
*
*  1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate
*     the system:
*        TRANS = 'N':  diag(R)*A*diag(C)     *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B
*        TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
*        TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
*     Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the
*     scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is
*     overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N')
*     or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C').
*
*  2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the
*     matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as
*        A = P * L * U,
*     where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular
*     matrix, and U is upper triangular.
*
*  3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine
*     returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used
*     to estimate the condition number of the matrix A.  If the
*     reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision,
*     INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on
*     to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below.
*
*  4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form
*     of A.
*
*  5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution
*     matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates
*     for it.
*
*  6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by
*     diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so
*     that it solves the original system before equilibration.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  FACT    (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is
*          supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be
*          equilibrated before it is factored.
*          = 'F':  On entry, AF and IPIV contain the factored form of A.
*                  If EQUED is not 'N', the matrix A has been
*                  equilibrated with scaling factors given by R and C.
*                  A, AF, and IPIV are not modified.
*          = 'N':  The matrix A will be copied to AF and factored.
*          = 'E':  The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then
*                  copied to AF and factored.
*
*  TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the form of the system of equations:
*          = 'N':  A * X = B     (No transpose)
*          = 'T':  A**T * X = B  (Transpose)
*          = 'C':  A**H * X = B  (Conjugate transpose)
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
*          matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrices B and X.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.  If FACT = 'F' and EQUED is
*          not 'N', then A must have been equilibrated by the scaling
*          factors in R and/or C.  A is not modified if FACT = 'F' or
*          'N', or if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'N' on exit.
*
*          On exit, if EQUED .ne. 'N', A is scaled as follows:
*          EQUED = 'R':  A := diag(R) * A
*          EQUED = 'C':  A := A * diag(C)
*          EQUED = 'B':  A := diag(R) * A * diag(C).
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  AF      (input or output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAF,N)
*          If FACT = 'F', then AF is an input argument and on entry
*          contains the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U as computed by ZGETRF.  If EQUED .ne. 'N', then
*          AF is the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A.
*
*          If FACT = 'N', then AF is an output argument and on exit
*          returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          of the original matrix A.
*
*          If FACT = 'E', then AF is an output argument and on exit
*          returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          of the equilibrated matrix A (see the description of A for
*          the form of the equilibrated matrix).
*
*  LDAF    (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array AF.  LDAF >= max(1,N).
*
*  IPIV    (input or output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry
*          contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          as computed by ZGETRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
*          with row IPIV(i).
*
*          If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
*          contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          of the original matrix A.
*
*          If FACT = 'E', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
*          contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          of the equilibrated matrix A.
*
*  EQUED   (input or output) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the form of equilibration that was done.
*          = 'N':  No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N').
*          = 'R':  Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
*                  diag(R).
*          = 'C':  Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
*                  by diag(C).
*          = 'B':  Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
*                  replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
*          EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an
*          output argument.
*
*  R       (input or output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          The row scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
*          multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
*          is not accessed.  R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
*          otherwise, R is an output argument.  If FACT = 'F' and
*          EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.
*
*  C       (input or output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*          The column scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
*          multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
*          is not accessed.  C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
*          otherwise, C is an output argument.  If FACT = 'F' and
*          EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit,
*          if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified;
*          if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B', B is overwritten by
*          diag(R)*B;
*          if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', B is
*          overwritten by diag(C)*B.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  X       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
*          If INFO = 0 or INFO = N+1, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X
*          to the original system of equations.  Note that A and B are
*          modified on exit if EQUED .ne. 'N', and the solution to the
*          equilibrated system is inv(diag(C))*X if TRANS = 'N' and
*          EQUED = 'C' or 'B', or inv(diag(R))*X if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'
*          and EQUED = 'R' or 'B'.
*
*  LDX     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array X.  LDX >= max(1,N).
*
*  RCOND   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*          The estimate of the reciprocal condition number of the matrix
*          A after equilibration (if done).  If RCOND is less than the
*          machine precision (in particular, if RCOND = 0), the matrix
*          is singular to working precision.  This condition is
*          indicated by a return code of INFO > 0.
*
*  FERR    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
*          The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector
*          X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X).
*          If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j)
*          is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest
*          element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the
*          largest element in X(j).  The estimate is as reliable as
*          the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight
*          overestimate of the true error.
*
*  BERR    (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (NRHS)
*          The componentwise relative backward error of each solution
*          vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in
*          any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).
*
*  WORK    (workspace) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (2*N)
*
*  RWORK   (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (2*N)
*          On exit, RWORK(1) contains the reciprocal pivot growth
*          factor norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element" norm is
*          used. If RWORK(1) is much less than 1, then the stability
*          of the LU factorization of the (equilibrated) matrix A
*          could be poor. This also means that the solution X, condition
*          estimator RCOND, and forward error bound FERR could be
*          unreliable. If factorization fails with 0 0:  if INFO = i, and i is
*                <= N:  U(i,i) is exactly zero.  The factorization has
*                       been completed, but the factor U is exactly
*                       singular, so the solution and error bounds
*                       could not be computed. RCOND = 0 is returned.
*                = N+1: U is nonsingular, but RCOND is less than machine
*                       precision, meaning that the matrix is singular
*                       to working precision.  Nevertheless, the
*                       solution and error bounds are computed because
*                       there are a number of situations where the
*                       computed solution can be more accurate than the
*                       value of RCOND would suggest.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgesvxx

```USAGE:
x, rcond, rpvgrw, berr, err_bnds_norm, err_bnds_comp, info, a, af, ipiv, equed, r, c, b, params = NumRu::Lapack.zgesvxx( fact, trans, a, af, ipiv, equed, r, c, b, params, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGESVXX( FACT, TRANS, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, EQUED, R, C, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, RPVGRW, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS, WORK, RWORK, INFO )

*     Purpose
*     =======
*
*     ZGESVXX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a
*     complex*16 system of linear equations  A * X = B,  where A is an
*     N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices.
*
*     If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds
*     are returned. ZGESVXX will return a solution with a tiny
*     guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine
*     precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which
*     case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are
*     calculated and returned.
*
*     ZGESVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration
*     factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options.
*     Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous
*     ZGESVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps)
*     errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general
*     user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they
*     differ from what ZGESVXX would itself produce.
*
*     Description
*     ===========
*
*     The following steps are performed:
*
*     1. If FACT = 'E', double precision scaling factors are computed to equilibrate
*     the system:
*
*       TRANS = 'N':  diag(R)*A*diag(C)     *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B
*       TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
*       TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B
*
*     Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the
*     scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is
*     overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N')
*     or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C').
*
*     2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor
*     the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as
*
*       A = P * L * U,
*
*     where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular
*     matrix, and U is upper triangular.
*
*     3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the
*     routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A
*     is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see
*     argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less
*     than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X
*     and compute error bounds as described below.
*
*     4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form
*     of A.
*
*     5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero),
*     the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small
*     error and error bounds.  Refinement calculates the residual to at
*     least twice the working precision.
*
*     6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by
*     diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so
*     that it solves the original system before equilibration.
*

*     Arguments
*     =========
*
*     Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array.  These
*     settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the
*     defaults are acceptable.  If the defaults are acceptable, users
*     can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing
*     the PARAMS argument.
*
*     FACT    (input) CHARACTER*1
*     Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is
*     supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be
*     equilibrated before it is factored.
*       = 'F':  On entry, AF and IPIV contain the factored form of A.
*               If EQUED is not 'N', the matrix A has been
*               equilibrated with scaling factors given by R and C.
*               A, AF, and IPIV are not modified.
*       = 'N':  The matrix A will be copied to AF and factored.
*       = 'E':  The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then
*               copied to AF and factored.
*
*     TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*     Specifies the form of the system of equations:
*       = 'N':  A * X = B     (No transpose)
*       = 'T':  A**T * X = B  (Transpose)
*       = 'C':  A**H * X = B  (Conjugate Transpose)
*
*     N       (input) INTEGER
*     The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the
*     matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*     NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*     The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*     of the matrices B and X.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*     A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*     On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.  If FACT = 'F' and EQUED is
*     not 'N', then A must have been equilibrated by the scaling
*     factors in R and/or C.  A is not modified if FACT = 'F' or
*     'N', or if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'N' on exit.
*
*     On exit, if EQUED .ne. 'N', A is scaled as follows:
*     EQUED = 'R':  A := diag(R) * A
*     EQUED = 'C':  A := A * diag(C)
*     EQUED = 'B':  A := diag(R) * A * diag(C).
*
*     LDA     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*     AF      (input or output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDAF,N)
*     If FACT = 'F', then AF is an input argument and on entry
*     contains the factors L and U from the factorization
*     A = P*L*U as computed by ZGETRF.  If EQUED .ne. 'N', then
*     AF is the factored form of the equilibrated matrix A.
*
*     If FACT = 'N', then AF is an output argument and on exit
*     returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     of the original matrix A.
*
*     If FACT = 'E', then AF is an output argument and on exit
*     returns the factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     of the equilibrated matrix A (see the description of A for
*     the form of the equilibrated matrix).
*
*     LDAF    (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array AF.  LDAF >= max(1,N).
*
*     IPIV    (input or output) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*     If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry
*     contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     as computed by ZGETRF; row i of the matrix was interchanged
*     with row IPIV(i).
*
*     If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
*     contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     of the original matrix A.
*
*     If FACT = 'E', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit
*     contains the pivot indices from the factorization A = P*L*U
*     of the equilibrated matrix A.
*
*     EQUED   (input or output) CHARACTER*1
*     Specifies the form of equilibration that was done.
*       = 'N':  No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N').
*       = 'R':  Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
*               diag(R).
*       = 'C':  Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
*               by diag(C).
*       = 'B':  Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
*               replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
*     EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an
*     output argument.
*
*     R       (input or output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*     The row scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
*     multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
*     is not accessed.  R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
*     otherwise, R is an output argument.  If FACT = 'F' and
*     EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.
*     If R is output, each element of R is a power of the radix.
*     If R is input, each element of R should be a power of the radix
*     to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
*     powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
*     result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
*     lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
*     input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
*     reliable.
*
*     C       (input or output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
*     The column scale factors for A.  If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
*     multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
*     is not accessed.  C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
*     otherwise, C is an output argument.  If FACT = 'F' and
*     EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.
*     If C is output, each element of C is a power of the radix.
*     If C is input, each element of C should be a power of the radix
*     to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
*     powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
*     result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
*     lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
*     input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
*     reliable.
*
*     B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*     On entry, the N-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B.
*     On exit,
*     if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified;
*     if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B', B is overwritten by
*        diag(R)*B;
*     if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', B is
*        overwritten by diag(C)*B.
*
*     LDB     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*     X       (output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
*     If INFO = 0, the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X to the original
*     system of equations.  Note that A and B are modified on exit
*     if EQUED .ne. 'N', and the solution to the equilibrated system is
*     inv(diag(C))*X if TRANS = 'N' and EQUED = 'C' or 'B', or
*     inv(diag(R))*X if TRANS = 'T' or 'C' and EQUED = 'R' or 'B'.
*
*     LDX     (input) INTEGER
*     The leading dimension of the array X.  LDX >= max(1,N).
*
*     RCOND   (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*     Reciprocal scaled condition number.  This is an estimate of the
*     reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
*     equilibration (if done).  If this is less than the machine
*     precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
*     to working precision.  Note that the error may still be small even
*     if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-
*     conditioned.
*
*     RPVGRW  (output) DOUBLE PRECISION
*     Reciprocal pivot growth.  On exit, this contains the reciprocal
*     pivot growth factor norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element"
*     norm is used.  If this is much less than 1, then the stability of
*     the LU factorization of the (equilibrated) matrix A could be poor.
*     This also means that the solution X, estimated condition numbers,
*     and error bounds could be unreliable. If factorization fails with
*     0 0 and <= N:  U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero.  The factorization
*         has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so
*         the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0
*         is returned.
*       = N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth right-hand side is
*         not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right-
*         hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but
*         only the first such right-hand side is reported. If a small
*         componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then
*         the Jth right-hand side is the first with a normwise error
*         bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such
*         that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)
*         the Jth right-hand side is the first with either a normwise or
*         componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest
*         J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or
*         ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of
*         ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information
*         about all of the right-hand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or
*         ERR_BNDS_COMP.
*

*     ==================================================================
*

```
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## zgetc2

```USAGE:
ipiv, jpiv, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgetc2( a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGETC2( N, A, LDA, IPIV, JPIV, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGETC2 computes an LU factorization, using complete pivoting, of the
*  n-by-n matrix A. The factorization has the form A = P * L * U * Q,
*  where P and Q are permutation matrices, L is lower triangular with
*  unit diagonal elements and U is upper triangular.
*
*  This is a level 1 BLAS version of the algorithm.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA, N)
*          On entry, the n-by-n matrix to be factored.
*          On exit, the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U*Q; the unit diagonal elements of L are not stored.
*          If U(k, k) appears to be less than SMIN, U(k, k) is given the
*          value of SMIN, giving a nonsingular perturbed system.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1, N).
*
*  IPIV    (output) INTEGER array, dimension (N).
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= N, row i of the
*          matrix has been interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  JPIV    (output) INTEGER array, dimension (N).
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= j <= N, column j of the
*          matrix has been interchanged with column JPIV(j).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*           = 0: successful exit
*           > 0: if INFO = k, U(k, k) is likely to produce overflow if
*                one tries to solve for x in Ax = b. So U is perturbed
*                to avoid the overflow.
*

*  Further Details
*  ===============
*
*  Based on contributions by
*     Bo Kagstrom and Peter Poromaa, Department of Computing Science,
*     Umea University, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden.
*
*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgetf2

```USAGE:
ipiv, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgetf2( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGETF2( M, N, A, LDA, IPIV, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGETF2 computes an LU factorization of a general m-by-n matrix A
*  using partial pivoting with row interchanges.
*
*  The factorization has the form
*     A = P * L * U
*  where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular with unit
*  diagonal elements (lower trapezoidal if m > n), and U is upper
*  triangular (upper trapezoidal if m < n).
*
*  This is the right-looking Level 2 BLAS version of the algorithm.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the m by n matrix to be factored.
*          On exit, the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U; the unit diagonal elements of L are not stored.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  IPIV    (output) INTEGER array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= min(M,N), row i of the
*          matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0: successful exit
*          < 0: if INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0: if INFO = k, U(k,k) is exactly zero. The factorization
*               has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
*               singular, and division by zero will occur if it is used
*               to solve a system of equations.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgetrf

```USAGE:
ipiv, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgetrf( m, a, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGETRF( M, N, A, LDA, IPIV, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGETRF computes an LU factorization of a general M-by-N matrix A
*  using partial pivoting with row interchanges.
*
*  The factorization has the form
*     A = P * L * U
*  where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular with unit
*  diagonal elements (lower trapezoidal if m > n), and U is upper
*  triangular (upper trapezoidal if m < n).
*
*  This is the right-looking Level 3 BLAS version of the algorithm.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  M       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of rows of the matrix A.  M >= 0.
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The number of columns of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the M-by-N matrix to be factored.
*          On exit, the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U; the unit diagonal elements of L are not stored.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,M).
*
*  IPIV    (output) INTEGER array, dimension (min(M,N))
*          The pivot indices; for 1 <= i <= min(M,N), row i of the
*          matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO = i, U(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization
*                has been completed, but the factor U is exactly
*                singular, and division by zero will occur if it is used
*                to solve a system of equations.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgetri

```USAGE:
work, info, a = NumRu::Lapack.zgetri( a, ipiv, [:lwork => lwork, :usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGETRI( N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK, LWORK, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGETRI computes the inverse of a matrix using the LU factorization
*  computed by ZGETRF.
*
*  This method inverts U and then computes inv(A) by solving the system
*  inv(A)*L = inv(U) for inv(A).
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  A       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          On entry, the factors L and U from the factorization
*          A = P*L*U as computed by ZGETRF.
*          On exit, if INFO = 0, the inverse of the original matrix A.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  IPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          The pivot indices from ZGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
*          matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  WORK    (workspace/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
*          On exit, if INFO=0, then WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.
*
*  LWORK   (input) INTEGER
*          The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,N).
*          For optimal performance LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is
*          the optimal blocksize returned by ILAENV.
*
*          If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
*          only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
*          this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
*          message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*          > 0:  if INFO = i, U(i,i) is exactly zero; the matrix is
*                singular and its inverse could not be computed.
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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## zgetrs

```USAGE:
info, b = NumRu::Lapack.zgetrs( trans, a, ipiv, b, [:usage => usage, :help => help])

FORTRAN MANUAL
SUBROUTINE ZGETRS( TRANS, N, NRHS, A, LDA, IPIV, B, LDB, INFO )

*  Purpose
*  =======
*
*  ZGETRS solves a system of linear equations
*     A * X = B,  A**T * X = B,  or  A**H * X = B
*  with a general N-by-N matrix A using the LU factorization computed
*  by ZGETRF.
*

*  Arguments
*  =========
*
*  TRANS   (input) CHARACTER*1
*          Specifies the form of the system of equations:
*          = 'N':  A * X = B     (No transpose)
*          = 'T':  A**T * X = B  (Transpose)
*          = 'C':  A**H * X = B  (Conjugate transpose)
*
*  N       (input) INTEGER
*          The order of the matrix A.  N >= 0.
*
*  NRHS    (input) INTEGER
*          The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
*          of the matrix B.  NRHS >= 0.
*
*  A       (input) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDA,N)
*          The factors L and U from the factorization A = P*L*U
*          as computed by ZGETRF.
*
*  LDA     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).
*
*  IPIV    (input) INTEGER array, dimension (N)
*          The pivot indices from ZGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
*          matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
*
*  B       (input/output) COMPLEX*16 array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
*          On entry, the right hand side matrix B.
*          On exit, the solution matrix X.
*
*  LDB     (input) INTEGER
*          The leading dimension of the array B.  LDB >= max(1,N).
*
*  INFO    (output) INTEGER
*          = 0:  successful exit
*          < 0:  if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value
*

*  =====================================================================
*

```
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